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CT and radiographic analysis of sagittal profile changes after thoracoscopic anterior scoliosis surgery

Izatt, Maree T., Adam, Clayton J., Verzin, Eugene J., Labrom, Robert D., & Askin, Geoffrey N. (2012) CT and radiographic analysis of sagittal profile changes after thoracoscopic anterior scoliosis surgery. Scoliosis, 7(15).

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Abstract

Background. Previous studies report an increase in thoracic kyphosis after anterior approaches and a flattening of sagittal contours following posterior approaches. Difficulties with measuring sagittal parameters on radiographs are avoided with reformatted sagittal CT reconstructions due to the superior endplate clarity afforded by this imaging modality.

Methods. A prospective study of 30 Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients receiving selective thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion (TASF) was performed. Participants had ethically approved low dose CT scans at minimum 24 months after surgery in addition to their standard care following surgery. The change in sagittal contours on supine CT was compared to standing radiographic measurements of the same patients and with previous studies. Inter-observer variability was assessed as well as whether hypokyphotic and normokyphotic patient groups responded differently to the thoracoscopic anterior approach.

Results. Mean T5-12 kyphosis Cobb angle increased by 11.8 degrees and lumbar lordosis increased by 5.9 degrees on standing radiographs two years after surgery. By comparison, CT measurements of kyphosis and lordosis increased by 12.3 degrees and 7.0 degrees respectively. 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability of sagittal contour measurements on supine CT ranged between 5-8 degrees. TASF had a slightly greater corrective effect on patients who were hypokyphotic before surgery compared with those who were normokyphotic.

Conclusions. Restoration of sagittal profile is an important goal of scoliosis surgery, but reliable measurement with radiographs suffers from poor endplate clarity. TASF significantly improves thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis while preserving proximal and distal junctional alignment in thoracic AIS patients. Supine CT allows greater endplate clarity for sagittal Cobb measurements and linear relationships were found between supine CT and standing radiographic measurements. In this study, improvements in sagittal kyphosis and lordosis following surgery were in agreement with prior anterior surgery studies, and add to the current evidence suggesting that anterior correction is more capable than posterior approaches of addressing the sagittal component of both the instrumented and adjacent non instrumented segments following surgical correction of progressive Lenke 1 idiopathic scoliosis.

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2 citations in Scopus
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ID Code: 53411
Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: Thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion, Anterior spinal fusion, Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, sagittal profile, computed tomography CT, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis
DOI: 10.1186/1748-7161-7-15
ISSN: 1748-7161
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300) > Biomechanical Engineering (090302)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > CLINICAL SCIENCES (110300) > Orthopaedics (110314)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2012 Izatt et al. ; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Copyright Statement: Biomed Central is an Open Access Publisher. Authors of articles published in Scoliosis retain the copyright of their articles and are free to reproduce and disseminate their work (for further details, see the BioMed Central copyright and license agreement).
Deposited On: 31 Aug 2012 08:19
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2014 16:17

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