Perceptions of clinical safety climate of the multicultural nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia : a cross-sectional survey

Almutairi, Adel Faza, Gardner, Glenn E., & McCarthy, Alexandra L. (2013) Perceptions of clinical safety climate of the multicultural nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia : a cross-sectional survey. Collegian, 20(3), pp. 187-194.

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The purpose of this study is to explore the safety climate perceptions of the multicultural nursing workforce, and to investigate the influence of diversity of the multicultural nursing workforce on clinical safety in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia.


Working in a multicultural environment is challenging. Each culture has its own unique characteristics and dimensions that shape the language, lifestyle, beliefs, values, customs, traditions, and patterns of behaviour, which expatriate nurses must come to terms with. However, cultural diversity in the health care environment can potentially affect the quality of care and patient safety.


A mixed-method case study (survey, interview and document analysis) was employed. A primary study phase entailed the administration of the Safety Climate Survey (SCS). A population sampling strategy was used and 319 nurses participated, yielding a 76.8% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal–Wallis test) were used to analyse survey data.


The data revealed the nurses’ perceptions of the clinical safety climate in this multicultural environment was unsafe, with a mean score of 3.9 out of 5. No significant difference was found between the age groups, years of nursing experience and their perceptions of the safety climate in this context. A significant difference was observed between the national background categories of nurses and perceptions of safety climate.


Cultural diversity within the nursing workforce could have a significant influence on perceptions of clinical safety. These findings have the potential to inform policy and practice related to cultural diversity in Saudi Arabia.

Impact and interest:

5 citations in Scopus
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3 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 53807
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: multicultural nursing workforce, clinical safety, cultural diversity, safety climate survey
DOI: 10.1016/j.colegn.2012.08.002
ISSN: 1322-7696
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Nursing
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2012 Royal College of Nursing Australia
Copyright Statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Collegian. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Collegian, [VOL 20, ISSUE 3, (2013)] DOI: 10.1016/j.colegn.2012.08.002
Deposited On: 25 Sep 2012 01:08
Last Modified: 13 Nov 2013 05:51

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