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Driver sleepiness self-regulation : physiological and subjective evidence

Watling, Christopher N. & Smith, Simon S. (2012) Driver sleepiness self-regulation : physiological and subjective evidence. In Australian Sleep Association Conference, Sleep DownUnder 2012 : Sleep up Top, 11-13 October 2012, Darwin, NT.

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Abstract

Introduction: Sleepiness contributes to a substantial proportion of fatal and severe road crashes. Efforts to reduce the incidence of sleep-related crashes have largely focussed on driver education to promote self-regulation of driving behaviour. However, effective self-regulation requires accurate self-perception of sleepiness. The aim of this study was to assess capacity to accurately identify sleepiness, and self-regulate driving cessation, during a validated driving simulator task. Methods: Participants comprised 26 young adult drivers (20-28 years) who had open licenses. No other exclusion criteria where used. Participants were partially sleep deprived (05:00 wake up) and completed a laboratory-based hazard perception driving simulation, counterbalanced to either at mid-morning or mid-afternoon. Established physiological measures (i.e., EEG, EOG) and subjective measures (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), previously found sensitive to changes in sleepiness levels, were utilised. Participants were instructed to ‘drive’ on the simulator until they believed that sleepiness had impaired their ability to drive safely. They were then offered a nap opportunity. Results: The mean duration of the drive before cessation was 36.1 minutes (±17.7 minutes). Subjective sleepiness increased significantly from the beginning (KSS=6.6±0.7) to the end (KSS=8.2±0.5) of the driving period. No significant differences were found for EEG spectral power measures of sleepiness (i.e., theta or alpha spectral power) from the start of the driving task to the point of cessation of driving. During the nap opportunity, 88% of the participants (23/26) were able to reach sleep onset with an average latency of 9.9 minutes (±7.5 minutes). The average nap duration was 15.1 minutes (±8.1 minutes). Sleep architecture during the nap was predominately comprised of Stages I and II (combined 92%). Discussion: Participants reported high levels of sleepiness during daytime driving after very moderate sleep restriction. They were able to report increasing sleepiness during the test period despite no observed change in standard physiological indices of sleepiness. This increased subjective sleepiness had behavioural validity as the participants had high ‘napability’ at the point of driving cessation, with most achieving some degree of subsequent sleep. This study suggests that the nature of a safety instruction (i.e. how to view sleepiness) can be a determinant of driver behaviour.

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ID Code: 54107
Item Type: Conference Item (Presentation)
Keywords: Self-regulation, Sleepy Driving, Psychophysiology, Napability, Nap break
DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8425.2012.00580.x
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000) > PSYCHOLOGY (170100) > Biological Psychology (Neuropsychology Psychopharmacology Physiological Psychology) (170101)
Divisions: Current > Research Centres > Centre for Accident Research & Road Safety - Qld (CARRS-Q)
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Psychology & Counselling
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2012 The Authors
Deposited On: 11 Oct 2012 13:41
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2013 03:26

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