Experimental evidence indicating that mastreviruses probably did not co-diverge with their hosts
Harkins, G. W., Delport, W., Duffy, S., Wood, N., Monjane, A. L., Owor, B. E., Donaldson, L., Saumtally, S., Triton, G., Briddon, R. W., Shepherd, D. N., Rybicki, E. P., Martin, D. P., & Varsani, A. (2009) Experimental evidence indicating that mastreviruses probably did not co-diverge with their hosts. Virology Journal, 6.
Background. Despite the demonstration that geminiviruses, like many other single stranded DNA viruses, are evolving at rates similar to those of RNA viruses, a recent study has suggested that grass-infecting species in the genus Mastrevirus may have co-diverged with their hosts over millions of years. This "co-divergence hypothesis" requires that long-term mastrevirus substitution rates be at least 100,000-fold lower than their basal mutation rates and 10,000-fold lower than their observable short-term substitution rates. The credibility of this hypothesis, therefore, hinges on the testable claim that negative selection during mastrevirus evolution is so potent that it effectively purges 99.999% of all mutations that occur. Results. We have conducted long-term evolution experiments lasting between 6 and 32 years, where we have determined substitution rates of between 2 and 3 × 10 -4substitutions/site/year for the mastreviruses Maize streak virus (MSV) and Sugarcane streak Réunion virus (SSRV). We further show that mutation biases are similar for different geminivirus genera, suggesting that mutational processes that drive high basal mutation rates are conserved across the family. Rather than displaying signs of extremely severe negative selection as implied by the co-divergence hypothesis, our evolution experiments indicate that MSV and SSRV are predominantly evolving under neutral genetic drift. Conclusion. The absence of strong negative selection signals within our evolution experiments and the uniformly high geminivirus substitution rates that we and others have reported suggest that mastreviruses cannot have co-diverged with their hosts. © 2009 Harkins et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Cited By (since 1996): 20 Export Date: 12 November 2012 Source: Scopus Art. No.: 104|
|Deposited On:||20 Nov 2012 02:46|
|Last Modified:||29 May 2013 16:53|
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