The El Chichon stratospheric cloud : solid particulates and settling rates

Mackinnon, Ian D.R., Gooding, James L., McKay, David S., & Clanton, Uel S. (1984) The El Chichon stratospheric cloud : solid particulates and settling rates. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 23(1-2), pp. 125-146.

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Abstract

Sampling of the El Chichón stratospheric cloud in early May and in late July, 1982, showed that a significant proportion of the cloud consisted of solid particles between 2 μm and 40 μm size. In addition, many particles may have been part of larger aggregates or clusters that ranged in size from < 10 μm to > 50 μm. The majority of individual grains were angular aluminosilicate glass shards with various amounts of smaller, adhering particles. Surface features on individual grains include sulfuric acid droplets and larger (0.5 μm to 1 μm) sulfate gel droplets with various amounts of Na, Mg, Ca and Fe. The sulfate gels probably formed by the interaction of sulfur-rich gases and solid particles within the cloud soon after eruption. Ca-sulfate laths may have formed by condensation within the plume during eruption, or alternatively, at a later stage by the reaction of sulfuric acid aerosols with ash fragments within the stratospheric cloud. A Wilson-Huang formulation for the settling rate of individual particles qualitatively agrees with the observed particle-size distribution for a period at least four months after injection of material into the stratosphere. This result emphasizes the importance of particle shape in controlling the settling rate of volcanic ash from the stratosphere.

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34 citations in Scopus
31 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 55648
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2009, American Geological Institute.
1985-044243
settling rate
Keywords: ash falls, clastic sediments, El Chichon, glasses, granulometry, igneous rocks, inorganic acids, pyroclastics, sedimentation rates, sediments, stratosphere, sulfuric acid, volcanic ash, volcanic rocks, volcanology
DOI: 10.1016/0377-0273(84)90059-3
ISSN: 0377-0273
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES (040100) > Tropospheric and Stratospheric Physics (040108)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > GEOLOGY (040300) > Mineralogy and Crystallography (040306)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > GEOLOGY (040300) > Volcanology (040314)
Divisions: Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Deposited On: 30 Jan 2013 23:11
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2013 23:11

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