Atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals in urban stormwater
Gunawardena, Janaka, Egodawatta, Prasanna, Ayoko, Godwin A., & Goonetilleke, Ashantha (2013) Atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals in urban stormwater. Atmospheric Environment, 68, pp. 235-242.
Atmospheric deposition is one of the most important pathways of urban stormwater pollution. Atmospheric deposition which can be in the form of either wet or dry deposition have distinct characteristics in terms of associated particulate sizes, pollutant types and influential parameters. This paper discusses the outcomes of a comprehensive research study undertaken to identify important traffic characteristics and climate factors such as antecedent dry period and rainfall characteristics which influences the characteristics of wet and dry deposition of solids and heavy metals. The outcomes confirmed that Zinc (Zn) is correlated with traffic volume whereas Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), and Copper (Cu) are correlated with traffic congestion. Consequently, reducing traffic congestion will be more effective than reducing traffic volume for improving air quality particularly in relation to Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cu. Zn was found to have the highest atmospheric deposition rate compared to other heavy metals. Zn in dry deposition is associated with relatively larger particle size fractions (>10 µm), whereas Pb, Cd, Ni and Cu are associated with relatively smaller particle size fractions (<10 µm). The analysis further revealed that bulk (wet plus dry) deposition which is correlated with rainfall depth and contains a relatively higher percentage of smaller particles compared to dry deposition which is correlated with the antecedent dry period. As particles subjected to wet deposition are smaller, they disperse over a larger area from the source of origin compared to particles subjected to dry deposition as buoyancy forces become dominant for smaller particles compared to the influence of gravity. Furthermore, exhaust emission particles were found to be primarily associated with bulk deposition compared to dry deposition particles which mainly originate from vehicle component wear.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||air pollutants, atmospheric deposition, heavy metals, stormwater pollution, traffic emissions|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > CIVIL ENGINEERING (090500)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > CIVIL ENGINEERING (090500) > Water Quality Engineering (090508)
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Schools > School of Earth, Environmental & Biological Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2013 Elsevier|
|Copyright Statement:||“NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Atmospheric Environment. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Atmospheric Environment, [VOL 68, (2013)] DOI 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.062”|
|Deposited On:||09 Jan 2013 23:34|
|Last Modified:||08 Aug 2014 02:42|
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