Slithering snakes, angry men and out-group members : what and whom are we evolved to fear?

Mallan, Kimberley M., Lipp, Ottmar V., & Cochrane, Benjamin (2013) Slithering snakes, angry men and out-group members : what and whom are we evolved to fear? Cognition and Emotion, 27(7), pp. 1168-1180.

View at publisher

Abstract

The preparedness theory of classical conditioning proposed by Seligman (1970, 1971) has been applied extensively over the past 40 years to explain the nature and "source" of human fear and phobias. In this review we examine the formative studies that tested the four defining characteristics of prepared learning with animal fear-relevant stimuli (typically snakes and spiders) and consider claims that fear of social stimuli, such as angry faces, or faces of racial out-group members, may also be acquired utilising the same preferential learning mechanism. Exposition of critical differences between fear learning to animal and social stimuli suggests that a single account cannot adequately explain fear learning with animal and social stimuli. We demonstrate that fear conditioned to social stimuli is less robust than fear conditioned to animal stimuli as it is susceptible to cognitive influence and propose that it may instead reflect on negative stereotypes and social norms. Thus, a theoretical model that can accommodate the influence of both biological and cultural factors is likely to have broader utility in the explanation of fear and avoidance responses than accounts based on a single mechanism.

Impact and interest:

12 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
10 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

ID Code: 57351
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2013.778195
ISSN: 1305-8223
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Eurasia Publishing House
Deposited On: 19 Feb 2013 00:10
Last Modified: 25 Aug 2015 22:49

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page