Hybrid light-emitting diodes based on ZnO nanowires

Liu, Jinzhang (2012) Hybrid light-emitting diodes based on ZnO nanowires. In Feng, Zhe Chuan (Ed.) Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials. Taylor & Francis Group, New York.

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ZnO is a wide band-gap semiconductor that has several desirable properties for optoelectronic devices. With its large exciton binding energy of ~60 meV, ZnO is a promising candidate for high stability, room-temperature luminescent and lasing devices [1]. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on ZnO homojunctions had been reported [2,3], while preparing stable p-type ZnO is still a challenge. An alternative way is to use other p-type semiconductors, ether inorganic or organic, to form heterojunctions with the naturally n-type ZnO. The crystal structure of wurtzite ZnO can be described as Zn and O atomic layers alternately stacked along the [0001] direction. Because of the fastest growth rate over the polar (0001) facet, ZnO crystals tend to grow into one-dimensional structures, such as nanowires and nanobelts. Since the first report of ZnO nanobelts in 2001 [4], ZnO nanostructures have been particularly studied for their potential applications in nano-sized devices. Various growth methods have been developed for growing ZnO nanostructures, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), Metal-organic CVD (MOCVD), aqueous growth and electrodeposition [5]. Based on the successful synthesis of ZnO nanowires/nanorods, various types of hybrid light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were made. Inorganic p-type semiconductors, such as GaN, Si and SiC, have been used as substrates to grown ZnO nanorods/nanowires for making LEDs. GaN is an ideal material that matches ZnO not only in the crystal structure but also in the energy band levels. However, to prepare Mg-doped p-GaN films via epitaxial growth is still costly. In comparison, the organic semiconductors are inexpensive and have many options to select, for a large variety of p-type polymer or small-molecule semiconductors are now commercially available. The organic semiconductor has the limitation of durability and environmental stability. Many polymer semiconductors are susceptible to damage by humidity or mere exposure to oxygen in the air. Also the carrier mobilities of polymer semiconductors are generally lower than the inorganic semiconductors. However, the combination of polymer semiconductors and ZnO nanostructures opens the way for making flexible LEDs. There are few reports on the hybrid LEDs based on ZnO/polymer heterojunctions, some of them showed the characteristic UV electroluminescence (EL) of ZnO.

This chapter reports recent progress of the hybrid LEDs based on ZnO nanowires and other inorganic/organic semiconductors. We provide an overview of the ZnO-nanowire-based hybrid LEDs from the perspectives of the device configuration, growth methods of ZnO nanowires and the selection of p-type semiconductors. Also the device performances and remaining issues are presented.

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ID Code: 57430
Item Type: Book Chapter
Keywords: ZnO, Nanowires, Light-emitting devices, Organic semiconductors, optoelectronics
ISBN: 9781439855744
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING (090600) > Photonics and Electro-Optical Engineering (excl. Communications) (090606)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > MATERIALS ENGINEERING (091200) > Compound Semiconductors (091203)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > TECHNOLOGY (100000) > NANOTECHNOLOGY (100700) > Nanomaterials (100708)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2012 Taylor & Francis Inc
Deposited On: 20 Feb 2013 22:19
Last Modified: 13 Mar 2016 16:09

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