The hyperthermic patient
Concepts used in this chapter include:
Thermoregulation:- Thermoregulation refers to the body’s sophisticated, multi-system regulation of core body temperature. This hierarchical system extends from highly thermo-sensitive neurons in the preoptic region of the brain proximate to the rostral hypothalamus, down to the brain stem and spinal cord. Coupled with receptors in the skin and spine, both central and peripheral information on body temperature is integrated to inform and activate the homeostatic mechanisms which maintain our core temperature at 37oC1.
Hyperthermia:- An imbalance between the metabolic and external heat accumulated in the body and the loss of heat from the body2.
Exertional heat stroke:- A disorder of excessive heat production coupled with insufficient heat dissipation which occurs in un-acclimated individuals who are engaging in over-exertion in hot and humid conditions. This phenomenon includes central nervous system dysfunction and critical dysfunction to all organ systems including renal, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and hepatic functions.
Non-exertional heat stroke:- In contrast to exertional heatstroke as a consequence of high heat production during strenuous exercise, non-exertional heatstroke results from prolonged exposure to high ambient temperature. The elderly, those with chronic health conditions and children are particularly susceptible.3
Rhabdomylosis:- An acute, sometimes fatal disease characterised by destruction of skeletal muscle. In exertional heat stroke, rhabdomylosis occurs in the context of strenuous exercise when mechanical and/or metabolic stress damages the skeletal muscle, causing elevated serum creatine kinease. Associated with this is the potential development of hyperkalemia, myoglobinuria and renal failure.
Malignant hyperthermia:- Malignant hyperthermia is “an inherited subclinical myopathy characterised by a hypermetabolic reaction during anaesthesia. The reaction is related to skeletal muscle calcium dysregulation triggered by volatile inhaled anaesthetics and/or succinylcholine.”4 Presentation includes skeletal muscle rigidity, mixed metabolic and respiratory acidosis, tachycardia, hyperpyrexia, rhabdomylosis, hyperkalaemia, elevated serum creatine kinease, multi-organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and death.5
Impact and interest:
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Additional Information:||Submitted to "Paramedic Principles and Practice in Australia and New Zealand" for publication|
|Keywords:||hyperthermia, thermoregulation, paramedic|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)|
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Clinical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Deposited On:||10 Mar 2013 23:41|
|Last Modified:||10 Mar 2013 23:41|
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