Extracorporeal lessons from sheep

Fung, Y. L., Diab, S., Dunster, K., Foley, S. R., McDonald, C. I., Passmore, M., Platts, D., Simonova, G., Shekar, K., Stewart, D., & Fraser, J. F. (2012) Extracorporeal lessons from sheep. ISBT Science Series, 7(1), pp. 92-95.

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Abstract

Background: Extracorporeal circulation (ECC), the diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside of the body, has been one of the major advances in modern medicine. Cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB), renal dialysis, apheresis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are all different forms of ECC. Despite its major benefits, when blood comes into contact with foreign material, both the coagulation and inflammation cascades are activated simultaneously. Short periods of exposure to ECC e.g. CPB (�2 h duration), are known to be associated with haemolysis, coagulopathies, bleeding and inflammation which demand blood product support. Therefore, it is not unexpected that these complications would be exaggerated with prolonged periods of ECC such as in ECMO (days to weeks duration). The variability and complexities of the underlying pathologies of patients requiring ECC makes it difficult to study the cause and effect of these complications. To overcome this problem we developed an ovine (sheep) model of ECC.

Method: Healthy female sheep (1–3 y.o.) weighing 40–50 kg were fasted overnight, anaesthetised, intubated and ventilated [1]. Half the group received smoke induced acute lung injury (S-ALI group) (n = 8) and the other half did not (healthy group) (n = 8). Sheep were subsequently cannulated (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA) and veno-venous ECMO commenced using PLS ECMO circuit and Quadrox D oxygenator (Maquet Cardiopulmonary AG, Hechinger Straße, Germany). There was continuous physiological monitoring and blood was collected at specified time intervals for full blood counts, platelet function analysis (by Multiplate®), routine coagulation and assessment of clot formation and lysis (by ROTEM®). Preliminary results Full blood counts and routine coagulation results from normal healthy sheep were comparable to those of normal human adults. Within 15 min of initiating of ECMO, PT, PTT and EXTEM clot formation time increased, whilst EXTEM maximum clot firmness decreased in both cohorts.

Discussion & Conclusions: Preliminary results of sheep from both 2 h ECMO cohorts showed that the anatomy, haematology and coagulation parameters of an adult sheep are comparable to that a human adult. Experiments are currently underway with healthy (n = 8) and S-ALI (n = 8) sheep on ECMO for 24 h. In addition to characterising how ECMO alters haematology and coagulation parameters, we hope that it will also define which blood components will be most effective to correct bleeding or clotting complications during ECMO support.

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ID Code: 58267
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: coagulation, ECMO, extracorporeal, inflammation, sheep
DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2824.2012.01561.x
ISSN: 17512816
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > CLINICAL SCIENCES (110300) > Intensive Care (110310)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Deposited On: 18 Mar 2013 05:26
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2013 15:37

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