Investigation of the airborne submicrometer particles emitted by dredging vessels using a plume capture method
Juwono, A., Johnson, G.R., Mazaheri, M., Morawska, L., Roux, F., & Kitchen, B. (2013) Investigation of the airborne submicrometer particles emitted by dredging vessels using a plume capture method. Atmospheric Environment.
This paper presents a method for investigating ship emissions, the plume capture and analysis system (PCAS), and its application in measuring airborne pollutant emission factors (EFs) and particle size distributions. The current investigation was conducted in situ, aboard two dredgers (Amity: a cutter suction dredger and Brisbane: a hopper suction dredger) but the PCAS is also capable of performing such measurements remotely at a distant point within the plume. EFs were measured relative to the fuel consumption using the fuel combustion derived plume CO2. All plume measurements were corrected by subtracting background concentrations sampled regularly from upwind of the stacks. Each measurement typically took 6 minutes to complete and during one day, 40 to 50 measurements were possible.
The relationship between the EFs and plume sample dilution was examined to determine the plume dilution range over which the technique could deliver consistent results when measuring EFs for particle number (PN), NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 within a targeted dilution factor range of 50-1000 suitable for remote sampling. The EFs for NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 were found to be independent of dilution, for dilution factors within that range. The EF measurement for PN was corrected for coagulation losses by applying a time dependant particle loss correction to the particle number concentration data.
For the Amity, the EF ranges were PN: 2.2 - 9.6 × 1015 (kg-fuel)-1; NOx: 35-72 g(NO2).(kg-fuel)-1, SO2 0.6 - 1.1 g(SO2).(kg-fuel)-1and PM2.5: 0.7 – 6.1 g(PM2.5).(kg-fuel)-1. For the Brisbane they were PN: 1.0 – 1.5 x 1016 (kg-fuel)-1, NOx: 3.4 – 8.0 g(NO2).(kg-fuel)-1, SO2: 1.3 – 1.7 g(SO2).(kg-fuel)-1 and PM2.5: 1.2 – 5.6 g(PM2.5).(kg-fuel)-1. The results are discussed in terms of the operating conditions of the vessels’ engines.
Particle number emission factors as a function of size as well as the count median diameter (CMD), and geometric standard deviation of the size distributions are provided. The size distributions were found to be consistently uni-modal in the range below 500 nm, and this mode was within the accumulation mode range for both vessels. The representative CMDs for the various activities performed by the dredgers ranged from 94-131 nm in the case of the Amity, and 58-80 nm for the Brisbane. A strong inverse relationship between CMD and EF(PN) was observed.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||PCAS, emission factor, particle number concentration, NOx, SO2, PM2.5, relative size distribution, dilution ratio|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES (040100)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT (050200) > Environmental Monitoring (050206)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > OTHER ENGINEERING (099900) > Engineering not elsewhere classified (099999)
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2013 Elsevier|
|Deposited On:||26 Mar 2013 01:15|
|Last Modified:||16 Apr 2013 00:21|
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