Gender differences in rumination : a meta-analysis

Johnson, Daniel M. & Whisman, Mark A. (2013) Gender differences in rumination : a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences.

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Starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. According to the response styles theory (RST), gender differences in depression result, in part, from women's tendency to ruminate more than men. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate gender differences in rumination in adults (k = 59; N = 14,321); additionally, an analysis of subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - was conducted (k = 23). Fixed effects analyses indicated that women scored higher than men in rumination (d = .24, p < .01, SEd = .02), brooding (d = .19, p < .01, SEd = .03) and reflection (d = .17, p < .01, SEd = .03); there was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias across studies for these effect sizes. Although statistically significant, the effect sizes for gender differences in rumination were small in magnitude. Results are discussed with respect to the RST and gender differences in depression

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19 citations in Scopus
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29 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 60067
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Early version available online
Keywords: Rumination, Gender difference, Sex difference, Depression, Brooding, Reflection
DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.019
ISSN: 0191-8869
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Deposited On: 20 May 2013 00:08
Last Modified: 22 Jan 2015 03:17

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