Load bearing improves the limits of agreement for repeated in vivo measures of the speed of sound in human Achilles tendon
Smeathers, J.E., Wearing, S., Hooper, S., Locke, S., & Grigg, N. (2011) Load bearing improves the limits of agreement for repeated in vivo measures of the speed of sound in human Achilles tendon. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(Supp 1), e46-e47.
Axial acoustic wave propagation has been widely used in evaluating the mechanical properties of human bone in vivo. However, application of this technique to monitor soft tissues, such as tendon, has received comparatively little scientific attention. Laboratory-based research has established that axial acoustic wave transmission is not only related to the physical properties of equine tendon but is also proportional to tensile load to which it is exposed (Miles et al., 1996; Pourcelot et al., 2005). The reproducibility of the technique for in vivo measurements in human tendon, however, has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the limits of agreement for repeated measures of the speed of sound (SoS) in human Achilles tendon in vivo. Methods: A custom built ultrasound device, consisting of an A-mode 1MHz emitter and two regularly spaced receivers, was used to measure the SoS in the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon in ten healthy males and ten females (mean age: 33.8 years, range 23-56 yrs; height: 1.73±0.08 m; weight: 68.4±15.3 kg). The emitter and receivers were held at fixed positions by a polyethylene frame and maintained in close contact with the skin overlying the tendon by means of elasticated straps. Repeated SoS measurements were taken with the subject prone (non-weightbearing and relaxed Achilles tendon) and during quiet bipedal and unipedal stance. In each instance, the device was detached and repositioned prior to measurement. Results: Limits of agreement for repeated SoS measures during non-weightbearing and bipedal and unipedal stance were ±53, ±28 and ±21 m/s, respectively. The average SoS in the non-weightbearing Achilles tendon was 1804±198 m/s. There was a significant increase in the average SoS during bilateral (2122±135 m/s) (P < 0.05) and unilateral (2221±79 m/s) stance (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Repeated SoS measures in human Achilles tendon were more reliable during stance than under non-weightbearing conditions. These findings are consistent with previous research in equine tendon in which lower variability in SoS was observed with increasing tensile load (Crevier-Denoix et al, 2009). Since the limits of agreement for Achilles tendon SoS are nearly 5% of the changes previously observed during walking and therapeutic heel raise exercises, acoustic wave transmission provides a promising new non-invasive method for determining tendon properties during sports and rehabilitation related activities.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||Paper presented in 2011 Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport ``Optimising health and fitness–Participation, prevention and performance'' 19–22 October 2011|
|Keywords:||sonography, measurement, repeatability, limits of agreement|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PHYSICAL SCIENCES (020000) > OTHER PHYSICAL SCIENCES (029900) > Biological Physics (029901)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PHYSICAL SCIENCES (020000) > OTHER PHYSICAL SCIENCES (029900) > Medical Physics (029903)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600) > Biomechanics (110601)
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2011 Elsevier|
|Copyright Statement:||This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, [VOL 14, ISSUE Supp 1, (2011)] DOI: /10.1016/j.jsams.2011.11.096|
|Deposited On:||27 Aug 2013 22:39|
|Last Modified:||29 Aug 2013 05:04|
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