Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor treatment on femoral head osteonecrosis in a rat model

Kalhor, Ali (2013) Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor treatment on femoral head osteonecrosis in a rat model. Masters by Research thesis, Queensland University of Technology.


Introduction: Apoptosis is the final destiny of many cells in the body, though this process has been observed in some pathological processes. One of these pathological processes is femoral head non-traumatic osteonecrosis. Among many pro/anti-apoptotic factors, nitric oxide has recently been an area of further interest. Osteocyte apoptosis and its relation to pro-apoptotic action invite further research, and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)—which produces a high concentration of nitric oxide—has been flagged. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and inducible NOS suppressor (Aminoguanidine) in prevention of femoral head osteonecrosis in an experimental model of osteonecrosis in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs).

Methods: After animal ethic approval 34 SHR rats were divided into four groups. Ten rats were allocated to the control group without any treatment, and eight rats were allocated to three treatment groups namely: HBO, Aminoguanidine (AMG), and the combination of HBO and AMG treatments (HBO+AMG). The HBO group received 250 kPa of oxygen via hyperbaric chamber for 30 days started at their 5th week of life; the AMG group received 1mg/ml of AMG in drinking water from the fifth week till the 17th week of life; and the last group received a combination of these treatments. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 17th week of life and both femurs were analysed for evidence of osteonecrosis using Micro CT scan and H&E staining. Also, osteocyte apoptosis and the presence of two different forms of NOS (inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS)) were analysed by immunostaining and apoptosis staining (Hoechst and TUNEL).

Results: Bone morphology of metaphyseal and epiphyseal area of all rats were investigated and analysed. Micro CT findings revealed significantly higher mean fractional trabecular bone volume (FBV) of metaphyseal area in untreated SHRs compared with all other treatments (HBO, P<0.05, HBO+AMG, P<0.005, and AMG P<0.001). Bone surface to volume ratio also significantly increased with HBO+AMG and AMG treatments when compared with the control group (18.7 Vs 20.8, P<0.05, and 18.7 Vs 21.1, P<0.05). Epiphyseal mean FBV did not change significantly among groups.

In the metaphyseal area, trabecular thickness and numbers significantly decreased with AMG treatment, while trabecular separation significantly increased with both AMG and HBO+AMG treatment.

Histological ratio of no ossification and osteonecrosis was 37.5%, 43.7%, 18.7% and 6.2% of control, HBO, HBO+AMG and AMG groups respectively with only significant difference observed between HBO and AMG treatment (P<0.01).

High concentration of iNOS was observed in the region of osteonecrosis while there was no evidence of eNOS activity around that region.

In comparison with the control group, the ratio of osteocyte apoptosis significantly reduced in AMG treatment (P<0.005). We also observed significantly fewer apoptotic osteocytes in AMG group comparing with HBO treatment (P<0.05).

Conclusion: None of our treatments prevents osteonecrosis at the histological or micro CT scan level. High concentration of iNOS in the region of osteonecrosis and significant reduction of osteocyte apoptosis with AMG treatment were supportive of iNOS modulating osteocyte apoptosis in SHRs.

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ID Code: 63305
Item Type: QUT Thesis (Masters by Research)
Supervisor: Xiao, Yin, Crawford, Ross, Hutmacher, Dietmar, & Klein, Travis
Keywords: osteonecrosis, apoptosis, Hoechst, TUNNEL, spontaneous hypertensive rats, nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, micro CT scan, bone morphology, growth plate, aminoguanidine, osteocyte
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
Deposited On: 13 Oct 2013 23:00
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2015 07:01

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