AFM study of morphological changes associated with electrochemical solid--solid transformation of three-dimensional crystals of TCNQ to metal derivatives (metal= Cu, Co, Ni; TCNQ= tetracyanoquinodimethane)

Qu, Xiaohu, Nafady, Ayman, Mechler, Adam, Zhang, Jie, Harris, Alexander R., O'Mullane, Anthony P., Martin, Lisandra L., & Bond, Alan M. (2008) AFM study of morphological changes associated with electrochemical solid--solid transformation of three-dimensional crystals of TCNQ to metal derivatives (metal= Cu, Co, Ni; TCNQ= tetracyanoquinodimethane). Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 12(6), pp. 739-746.

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Abstract

In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows images from the upper face and sides of TCNQ crystals to be monitored during the course of the electrochemical solid–solid state conversion of 50 × 50 μm2 three-dimensional drop cast crystals of TCNQ to CuTCNQ or M[TCNQ]2(H2O)2 (M = Co, Ni). Ex situ images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also allow the bottom face of the TCNQ crystals, in contact with the indium tin oxide or gold electrode surface and aqueous metal electrolyte solution, to be examined. Results show that by carefully controlling the reaction conditions, nearly mono-dispersed, rod-like phase I CuTCNQ or M[TCNQ]2(H2O)2 can be achieved on all faces. However, CuTCNQ has two different phases, and the transformation of rod-like phase 1 to rhombic-like phase 2 achieved under conditions of cyclic voltammetry was monitored in situ by AFM. The similarity of in situ AFM results with ex situ SEM studies accomplished previously implies that the morphology of the samples remains unchanged when the solvent environment is removed. In the process of crystal transformation, the triple phase solid∣electrode∣electrolyte junction is confirmed to be the initial nucleation site. Raman spectra and AFM images suggest that 100% interconversion is not always achieved, even after extended electrolysis of large 50 × 50 μm2 TCNQ crystals.

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ID Code: 64277
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Prior to commencement at QUT
Keywords: In situ AFM , Ex situ SEM , TCNQ , Metal TCNQ complexes, Electrochemical solid–solid transformation
DOI: 10.1007/s10008-007-0423-0
ISSN: 1433-0768
Deposited On: 21 Nov 2013 02:31
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2013 22:34

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