The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal disease in Victoria, Australia

O'Grady, Kerry-Ann, Kelpie, Loraine, Andrews, Ross M., Curtis, Nigel, Nolan, Terence M., Selvaraj, Gowri, Passmore, Jonathon W., Oppedisano, Frances, Carnie, John A., & Carapetis, Jonathan R. (2007) The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal disease in Victoria, Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 186(11), pp. 565-569.

View at publisher



To estimate the incidence and severity of invasive group A streptococcal infection in Victoria, Australia.


Prospective active surveillance study.


Public and private laboratories, hospitals and general practitioners throughout Victoria.


eople in Victoria diagnosed with group A streptococcal disease notified to the surveillance system between 1 March 2002 and 31 August 2004.

Main outcome measure

Confirmed invasive group A streptococcal disease.


We identified 333 confirmed cases: an average annualised incidence rate of 2.7 (95% CI, 2.3-3.2) per 100000 population per year. Rates were highest in people aged 65 years and older and those younger than 5 years. The case-fatality rate was 7.8%. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 48 patients (14.4%), with a case-fatality rate of 23%. Thirty cases of necrotising fasciitis were reported; five (17%) of these patients died. Type 1 (23%) was the most frequently identified emm sequence type in all, age groups. All tested isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin. Two isolates (4%) were resistant to erythromycin.


The incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in temperate Australia is greater than previously appreciated and warrants greater public health attention, including its designation as a notifiable disease.

Impact and interest:

40 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
38 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

ID Code: 64707
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: 177XG--
Times Cited:21--
Cited References Count:38--
Keywords: toxic-shock-syndrome, health-care workers, m-protein, infections, vaccine, immunoglobulin, bacteremia, management, therapy, antibodies
ISSN: 0025-729X
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES (010000)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Deposited On: 26 Nov 2013 01:15
Last Modified: 09 Apr 2014 12:22

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page