Vision in water

Atchison, David A. (2013) Vision in water. In Australasian Ophthalmic and Visual Sciences Meeting, 3-6 November 2013, Hobart.

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Purpose: To determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size.

Method: The water environment was simulated by placing a goggle filled with saline in front of eyes, with apertures placed at the front of the goggle. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (7 participants), grating resolution (8 participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (1 participant).

Results: For letter acuity, mean loss in vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log minutes of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7mm aperture. The vision in minutes of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased, with 2 log unit loss by 3 cycles/degree. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity, with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8 and 1.3 cycles/degree and with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70 and 1.13 cycles/degree.

Conclusion: Vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

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ID Code: 64981
Item Type: Conference Item (Keynote)
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Special Issue: The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists 45th Annual Scientific Congress, 2–6 November 2013, The Hotel Grand Chancellor, Hobart
Keywords: water, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity
DOI: 10.1111/ceo.12229
ISSN: 1442-9071
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
Copyright Statement: The definitive version is available at
Deposited On: 03 Dec 2013 02:56
Last Modified: 07 Mar 2014 04:33

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