Determinants of drink-driving and association between drink-driving and road traffic fatalities in Ghana

Damsere-Derry, James, Afukaar, Francis, Palk, Gavan, & King, Mark (2013) Determinants of drink-driving and association between drink-driving and road traffic fatalities in Ghana. In 20th International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety Conference, 25-28 August 2013, Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

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Abstract

Background Drink-driving has been implicated in many road traffic crashes in the world. Consequently, the developed countries have prioritized drink-driving research. Contrary, drink-driving research has not attained any meaningful consideration in many developing countries. It is therefore imperative to intensify drink-driving research so as to provide research driven solutions to the menace.

Aims The objective is to establish determinants of drink-driving and its association with traffic crashes in Ghana.

Methods A randomized roadside breathalyzer survey was conducted. A multivariable logistic regression was used to establish significant determinants of drink-driving and a bivariate logistic regression to establish the association between drink–driving and road traffic crashes in Ghana.

Results In total, 2,736 motorists were randomly stopped for breath testing of whom 8.7% tested positive for alcohol. Among the total participants, 5.5% exceeded the legal BAC limit of 0.08%. Formal education is associated with a reduced likelihood of drink-driving compared with drivers without formal education. The propensity to drink-drive is 1.8 times higher among illiterate drivers compared with drivers with basic education. Young adult drivers also recorded elevated likelihoods for driving under alcohol impairment compared with adult drivers. The odds of drink-driving among truck drivers is OR=1.81, (95% CI=1.16 to 2.82) and two wheeler riders is OR=1.41, (95% CI=0.47 to 4.28) compared with car drivers. Contrary to general perception, commercial car drivers have a significant reduced likelihood of 41%, OR=0.59, (95% CI=0.38 to 0.92) compared with the private car driver. Bivariate analysis conducted showed a significant association between the proportion of drivers exceeding the legal BAC limit and road traffic fatalities, p<0.001. The model predicts a 1% increase in the proportion of drivers exceeding the legal BAC to be associated with a 4% increase in road traffic fatalities, 95% CI= 3% to 5% and vice versa.

Discussion and conclusion A positive and significant association between roadside alcohol prevalence and road traffic fatality has been established. Scaling up roadside breath test, determining standard drink and disseminating to the populace and formulating policies targeting the youth such as increasing minimum legal drinking age and reduced legal BAC limit for the youth and novice drivers might improve drink-driving related crashes in Ghana.

Impact and interest:

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ID Code: 65158
Item Type: Conference Paper
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: drink-driving, road traffic fatalities, Ghana
Divisions: Current > Research Centres > Centre for Accident Research & Road Safety - Qld (CARRS-Q)
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Psychology & Counselling
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Please consult the authors
Deposited On: 14 Jan 2014 02:45
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2014 04:48

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