Should Cyberbullying Be Criminalized?
Campbell, Marilyn A. & Završnik, Ales (2013) Should Cyberbullying Be Criminalized? In Smith, Peter K. & Steffgen, Georges (Eds.) Cyberbullying Through the New Media : Findings from an International Network. Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group, London and New York, pp. 65-82.
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Society’s attitudes towards all forms of bullying have changed in the last thirty years from considering it to be a normal part of childhood, a rite of passage and character building to regarding bullying as a behaviour to be prevented and condemned (Rigby, 2008; Žižek, 2008). This has been brought about by the research into the consequences of bullying during this time, revealing bullying to be detrimental not only to students who have been victimized but also to students who perpetrate the bullying and the bystanders who witness such behaviour. These consequences include increased levels of depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms (Fekkes, Pijpers, Frediks, Vogels, & Verloove-Vanhorrick, 2006; Kim, Leventhal, Koh, Hubbard, & Boyce, 2006; Reijntjs, Kamphuis, Prinzie, & Telch, 2010) for those students who have been victimized. Different detrimental associations have been found for girls and boys who had been bullied in one longitudinal study (Carbone-Lopez, Esbensen, & Bick 2010); girls who had been indirectly bullied increased their drug use whereas boys did not, and while victimized girls showed lower self-esteem, this did not occur for boys.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Keywords:||cyberbullying, legal, law, criminal, international|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EDUCATION (130000) > SPECIALIST STUDIES IN EDUCATION (130300) > Teacher Education and Professional Development of Educators (130313)|
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Cultural & Professional Learning
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Education
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2013 Peter K. Smith and Georges Steffgen|
|Deposited On:||13 Jan 2014 01:24|
|Last Modified:||21 Jul 2016 14:19|
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