Foot massage versus quiet presence on agitation and mood in people with dementia : a randomised controlled trial

Moyle, Wendy, Cooke, Marie Louise, Beattie, Elizabeth, Shum, David H.K., O'Dwyer, Siobhan T., & Barrett, Sue (2014) Foot massage versus quiet presence on agitation and mood in people with dementia : a randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(6), pp. 856-864.

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Abstract

Background

There is increasing interest in using complementary and alternative treatments to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia such as agitation, aggression and depressed mood.

Objective

To compare the effect of foot massage (intervention) and quiet presence (control) on agitation and mood in people with dementia.

Design

A randomised controlled trial using a within-subjects, crossover design.

Settings

Five long-term care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. The primary outcome was the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the secondary outcome was the Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS). The screening and data collection research assistants, families, and care staff were blinded to participant allocation.

Participants

Participants of the study were 55 long-term care residents aged 74–103 years (mean age 86.5), with moderate to severe dementia and a history of agitated behaviour according to the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale. A computer-program randomised participants to 10-min foot massage (intervention) or quiet presence (control), every weekday for 3 weeks.

Results

A carry-over effect was identified in the data, and so the data was treated as a parallel groups RCT. The mean total CMAI increased in both groups (reflecting an increase in agitation) with this increase greater in the quiet presence group than the foot massage group (p=0.03). There was a trend towards a difference on OERS General Alertness, with a positive change in alertness for participants in the foot massage group (indicating reduced alertness) and a negative change for participants in the quiet presence group (indicating increased alertness) (F(1,51)=3.88, p=0.05, partial ή2=0.07).

Conclusions

The findings highlight the need for further research on the specific conditions under which massage might promote relaxation and improve mood for people with dementia. The unfamiliar research assistants and variations in usual activity may have contributed to the increase in agitation and this needs further research.

Impact and interest:

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ID Code: 66557
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: agitation, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, dementia, alternative therapies
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.10.019
ISSN: 0020-7489
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000) > Aged Care Nursing (111001)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000) > Mental Health Nursing (111005)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Nursing
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Copyright Statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in International Journal of Nursing Studies. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in International Journal of Nursing Studies, [VOL 51, ISSUE 6, (2014)] DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.10.019
Deposited On: 31 Jan 2014 02:35
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2014 04:29

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