Bcl-2 genes and growth factors in the pathology of ischaemic acute renal failure

Gobe, G., Zhang, X. J., Cuttle, L., Pat, B., Willgoss, D., Hancock, J., Barnard, R., & Endre, R. B. (1999) Bcl-2 genes and growth factors in the pathology of ischaemic acute renal failure. Immunology and Cell Biology, 77(3), pp. 279-86.

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For the past decade, an attempt has been made by many research groups to define the roles of the growing number of Bcl-2 gene family proteins in the apoptotic process. The Bcl-2 family consists of pro-apoptotic (or cell death) and anti-apoptotic (or cell survival) genes and it is the balance in expression between these gene lineages that may determine the death or survival of a cell. The majority of studies have analysed the role/s of the Bcl-2 genes in cancer development. Equally important is their role in normal tissue development, homeostasis and non-cancer disease states. Bcl-2 is crucial for normal development in the kidney, with a deficiency in Bcl-2 producing such malformation that renal failure and death result. As a corollary, its role in renal disease states in the adult has been sought. Ischaemia is one of the most common causes of both acute and chronic renal failure. The section of the kidney that is most susceptible to ischaemic damage is the outer zone of the outer medulla. Within this zone the proximal tubules are most sensitive and often die by necrosis or desquamate. In the distal nephron, apoptosis is the more common form of cell death. Recent results from our laboratory have indicated that ischaemia-induced acute renal failure is associated with up-regulation of two anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) in the damaged distal tubule and occasional up-regulation of Bax in the proximal tubule. The distal tubule is a known reservoir for several growth factors important to renal growth and repair, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). One of the likely possibilities for the anti-cell death action of the Bcl-2 genes is that the protected distal cells may be able to produce growth factors that have a further reparative or protective role via an autocrine mechanism in the distal segment and a paracrine mechanism in the proximal cells. Both EGF and IGF-1 are also up-regulated in the surviving distal tubules and are detected in the surviving proximal tubules, where these growth factors are not usually synthesized. As a result, we have been using in vitro methods to test: (i) the relative sensitivities of renal distal and proximal epithelial cell populations to injury caused by mechanisms known to act in ischaemia-reperfusion; (ii) whether a Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic mechanism acts in these cells; and (iii) whether an autocrine and/or paracrine growth factor mechanism is initiated. The following review discusses the background to these studies as well as some of our preliminary results.

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ID Code: 67208
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Gobe, G Zhang, X J Cuttle, L Pat, B Willgoss, D Hancock, J Barnard, R Endre, R B eng Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review AUSTRALIA 1999/06/11 Immunol Cell Biol. 1999 Jun;77(3):279-86.
Keywords: Acute Kidney Injury/pathology/*physiopathology, Animals, Apoptosis/genetics/*physiology, Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism/physiology, Genes, bcl-2/drug effects/*physiology, Growth Substances/pharmacology/*physiology, Humans, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism/pharmacology/physiology, Ischemia/*physiopathology, Kidney/*blood supply/pathology, Necrosis, Nephrons/physiopathology, Reperfusion Injury/pathology
DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1711.1999.00826.x
ISSN: 0818-9641
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 1999 Nature Publishing Group.
Deposited On: 27 Feb 2014 03:26
Last Modified: 27 Feb 2014 03:26

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