Effect of lacunocanalicular architecture on hydraulic conductance in bone tissue : implications for bone health and evolution
Mishra, Sanjay K. & Knothe Tate, Melissa (2003) Effect of lacunocanalicular architecture on hydraulic conductance in bone tissue : implications for bone health and evolution. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, Volume 27(2), 752 -762.
Bone tissue health depends largely on efficient fluid and solute transport between the blood supply and cells that are the living component of the tissue. We hypothesized that the lacunocanalicular hydraulic network, which is defined by the pericellular fluid space that is common to all bone tissue, is optimized to transport fluid and solutes between the blood supply and bone cells. An analytical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of osteonal architecture, including the osteon diameter, number of annular lamellar regions, and number and length of canalicular channels, on fluid transport between the blood supply and bone cells. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that osteon size is limited to the distance over which fluid and solutes can be transported efficiently between the blood supply and cells. This analytic model suggests that hydraulic conductivity is highest in lamellar regions closest to the Haversian canal (HC) and decreases with increasing distance from the blood supply, reaching a plateau after the fifth lamella (169 m radius). Furthermore, an increase in the diameter of the HC, or a decrease in the length of canaliculi, reduces the hydraulic conductivity within the lacunocanalicular network. Applying the principle of minimal expenditure of energy to this analysis, the path distance comprising five or six lamellar regions represents an effective limit for fluid and solute transport between the blood supply and cells; beyond this threshold, hydraulic resistance in the network increases and additional energy expenditure is necessary for further transportation. This suggests that transport is optimized to meet metabolic demands concomitant with a minimal expenditure of energy. This fundamental new insight into bone structure and physiology may provide a new basis of understanding for tissue engineering, bone physiology in health and disease, and evolutionary biology
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