The role of the arachidonic acid pathway in NSCLC development and progression : novel approaches for therapeutic intervention

Cathcart, Mary Clare, O'Byrne, Kenneth J., & Pidgeon, Graham P. (2013) The role of the arachidonic acid pathway in NSCLC development and progression : novel approaches for therapeutic intervention. In Gately, Kathy (Ed.) Lung Cancer : A Comprehensive Overview. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 277-306.

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Abstract

Arachidonic acid metabolism through cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase (EPOX) pathways is responsible for the formation of biologically active eicosanoids, including prostanoids, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Altered eicosanoid expression levels are commonly observed during tumour development and progression of a range of malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids affect a range of biological phenomena to modulate tumour processes such as cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, cell adhesion, invasion and migration and metastatic potential. Numerous studies have demonstrated that eicosanoids modulate NSCLC development and progression, while targeting these pathways has generally been shown to inhibit tumour growth/progression. Modulation of these arachidonic acid-derived pathways for the prevention and/or treatment of NSCLC has been the subject of significant interest over the past number of years, with a number of clinical trials examining the potential of COX and LOX inhibitors in combination with traditional and novel molecular approaches. However, results from these trials have been largely disappointing. Furthermore, enthusiasm for the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors for cancer prevention/treatment waned, due to their association with adverse cardiovascular events in chemoprevention trials. While COX and LOX targeting may both retain promise for NSCLC prevention and/or treatment, there is an urgent need to understand the downstream signalling mechanisms through which these and other arachidonic acid-derived signalling pathways mediate their effects on tumourigenesis. This will allow for development of safer and potentially more effective strategies for NSCLC prevention and/or treatment. Chemoprevention studies with PGI2 analogues have demonstrated considerable promise, while binding to/signalling through PGE2 receptors have also been the subject of interest for NSCLC treatment. In this chapter, the role of the eicosanoid signalling pathways in non-small cell lung cancer will be discussed. In particular, the effect of the eicosanoids on tumour cell proliferation, their roles in induction of cell death, effects on angiogenesis, migration, invasion and their regulation of the immune response will be assessed, with signal transduction pathways involved in these processes also discussed. Finally, novel approaches targeting these arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids (using pharmacological or natural agents) for chemoprevention and/or treatment of NSCLC will be outlined. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of specific or general arachidonic acid pathway modulators may lead to the design of biologically and pharmacologically targeted therapeutic strategies for NSCLC prevention/treatment, which may be used alone or in combination with conventional therapies.

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ID Code: 67769
Item Type: Book Chapter
ISBN: 9781626184473
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > ONCOLOGY AND CARCINOGENESIS (111200)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Deposited On: 26 Feb 2014 01:02
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2015 16:09

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