Development of Contact Lenses from a Biomaterial Point of View – Materials, Manufacture, and Clinical Application

Efron, Nathan & Maldonado-Codina, Carole (2011) Development of Contact Lenses from a Biomaterial Point of View – Materials, Manufacture, and Clinical Application. In Ducheyne, Paul (Ed.) Comprehensive Biomaterials. Elsevier, London, pp. 517-541.

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Rigid lenses, which were originally made from glass (between 1888 and 1940) and later from polymethyl methacrylate or silicone acrylate materials, are uncomfortable to wear and are now seldom fitted to new patients. Contact lenses became a popular mode of ophthalmic refractive error correction following the discovery of the first hydrogel material – hydroxyethyl methacrylate – by Czech chemist Otto Wichterle in 1960. To satisfy the requirements for ocular biocompatibility, contact lenses must be transparent and optically stable (for clear vision), have a low elastic modulus (for good comfort), have a hydrophilic surface (for good wettability), and be permeable to certain metabolites, especially oxygen, to allow for normal corneal metabolism and respiration during lens wear. A major breakthrough in respect of the last of these requirements was the development of silicone hydrogel soft lenses in 1999 and techniques for making the surface hydrophilic. The vast majority of contact lenses distributed worldwide are mass-produced using cast molding, although spin casting is also used. These advanced mass-production techniques have facilitated the frequent disposal of contact lenses, leading to improvements in ocular health and fewer complications. More than one-third of all soft contact lenses sold today are designed to be discarded daily (i.e., ‘daily disposable’ lenses).

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ID Code: 68023
Item Type: Book Chapter
Additional Information: Volume 6: Biomaterials and Clinical Use
Keywords: Cast molding, Contact lenses, Daily wear, Disposability, Extended wear, Frequent replacement, Hydrogels, Lathe cutting, Oxygen permeability, Oxygen transmissibility, Refractive index, Silicone hydrogels, Spin casting, Water content
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-055294-1.00270-1
ISBN: 9780080552941
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Optometry & Vision Science
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Deposited On: 03 Mar 2014 23:58
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2015 16:12

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