Mesenchymal stromal cells and the repair of cartilage tissue

Doran, Michael & Young, Mark (2013) Mesenchymal stromal cells and the repair of cartilage tissue. In Chase, L.G. & Vemuri, M.C. (Eds.) Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy. Springer, New York, pp. 145-160.

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Articular cartilage has a limited intrinsic repair capacity, and thus defects are more likely to further degrade rather than undergo spontaneous self-repair. Whilst a number of surgical techniques have been developed to repair cartilage defects, their efficacy is generally poor and total joint replacement remains the gold standard, albeit last resort, treatment option. Cell-based therapies hold the greatest promise, as they appear uniquely capable of generating de novo cartilage tissue. Two approved therapies (ACI and MACI) are based on the premise that the transplantation of ex vivo expanded autologous chondrocyte populations, harvested from a non-load bearing region of the same joint, could be utilized to effectively regenerate cartilage tissue in the primary defect site. These therapeutic strategies are partially limited by our inability to harvest and expand adequate numbers of autologous chondrocytes that retain the appropriate phenotype. By contrast, the harvest and expansion of large numbers of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) derived from tissues such as bone marrow and adipose is comparatively straightforward and has become routine in laboratories worldwide. Additionally, our understanding of the biochemical and biophysical signals required to drive the chondrogenic differentiation of MSC is rapidly increasing. It is conceivable that in the near future MSC expansion and differentiation technologies will offer a means to generate sufficient cell numbers, of an appropriate phenotype, for use in cartilage defect repair. In this chapter we review the relative potential of MSC and their likely contribution to cartilage regeneration.

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ID Code: 68711
Item Type: Book Chapter
Keywords: Cartilage , Mesenchymal stem cells, Tissue Engineering, Osteoarthritis
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-200-1_8
ISBN: 9781627031998
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300) > Biomedical Engineering not elsewhere classified (090399)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > TECHNOLOGY (100000) > MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (100400) > Regenerative Medicine (incl. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering) (100404)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Deposited On: 18 Mar 2014 23:23
Last Modified: 20 Mar 2014 01:45

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