Renshaw, Ian & Davids, Keith W. (2014) Task constraints. In Eklund, Robert & Tenenbaum, Gershom (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. SAGE Publications Inc, Los Angeles, pp. 734-737. (In Press)
Newell (1985, 1986) identified the importance of interacting constraints on the emergent behaviours of learners or performers in sport as they assemble functional states of movement organisation in achieving task goals. Constraints, related to the person, task and environment, were defined as ‘boundaries or features that limit motion of the entity under consideration at any moment in time’ (Newell, 1986, p.347). Personal (or organismic) constraints include factors such as individual anthropometrics (height, weight, and limb lengths), fitness (e.g., strength, speed, aerobic capacity, and flexibility), mental skills (e.g. concentration, confidence, emotional control and motivation), perceptual and decisionmaking skills (e.g., recognising patterns of play, anticipation by reading the movements of opponents) and personality factors (e.g., risk taking or conservative behaviours). Newell (1986, p.350) distinguished between general environmental constraints, such as gravity, ambient temperature, natural light and altitude and task constraints, which are task specific and concerned with the goals of a specific activity. More recently, socio-cultural constraints (e.g., family support, cultural expectations and access to facilities) have also been considered as environmental constraints. Application of the constraints framework to the study of sport performance has led to task constraints being defined to include factors such as rules of games, equipment used, boundary playing areas and markings, nets and goals, the number of...
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|Item Type:||Reference Entry|
|Keywords:||task constraints, ecolgical dynamics, nonlinear pedagogy, constraints|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000) > PSYCHOLOGY (170100) > Sport and Exercise Psychology (170114)|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2014 Sage Publications|
|Deposited On:||21 Mar 2014 00:44|
|Last Modified:||12 Oct 2015 15:01|
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