Toll-like receptor and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during prolonged hyperinsulinaemia in horses : implications for laminitis

de Laat, M.A., Clement, C.K., McGowan, C.M., Sillence, M.N., Pollitt, C.C., & Lacombe, V.A. (2014) Toll-like receptor and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during prolonged hyperinsulinaemia in horses : implications for laminitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 157(1-2), pp. 78-86.

View at publisher


Equine laminitis, a disease of the lamellar structure of the horse’s hoof, can be incited by numerous factors that include inflammatory and metabolic aetiologies. However, the role of inflammation in hyperinsulinaemic laminitis has not been adequately defined. Tolllike receptor (TLR) activation results in up-regulation of inflammatory pathways and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-�), and may be a pathogenic factor in laminitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLR4 expression and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production is increased in lamellae and skeletal muscle during equine hyperinsulinaemia. Standardbred horses were treated with either a prolonged, euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (p-EHC) or a prolonged, glucose infusion (p-GI), which induced marked and moderate hyperinsulinaemia, respectively. Age-matched control horses were treated simultaneously with a balanced electrolyte solution. Treated horses developed clinical (p-EHC) or subclinical (p-GI) laminitis, whereas controls did not. Skeletal muscle and lamellar protein extracts were analysed by Western blotting for TLR4, IL-6, TNF-� and suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) expression. Lamellar protein expression of TLR4 and TNF-�, but not IL-6, was increased by the p-EHC, compared to control horses. A significant positive correlation was found between lamellar TLR4 and SOCS3. Skeletal muscle protein expression of TLR4 signalling parameters did not differ between control and p-EHC-treated horses. Similarly, the p-GI did not result in up-regulation of lamellar protein expression of any parameter. The results suggest that insulin-sensitive tissues may not accurately reflect lamellar pathology during hyperinsulinaemia. While TLR4 is present in the lamellae, its activation appears unlikely to contribute significantly to the developmental pathogenesis of hyperinsulinaemic laminitis. However, inflammation may have a role to play in the later stages (e.g., repair or remodelling) of the disease.

Impact and interest:

4 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
3 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

20 since deposited on 25 Mar 2014
8 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 69133
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: TLR4, Insulin, TNF-�, IL-6, Clamp, Lamellae, Equine
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.10.010
ISSN: 0165-2427
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES (070000)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Earth, Environmental & Biological Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Copyright Statement: NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, [Volume 157, Issues 1–2, (15 January 2014)] DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.10.010
Deposited On: 25 Mar 2014 05:02
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2015 21:52

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page