Human exposure to brominated flame retardants
Toms, Leisa-Maree, Hearn, Laurence, Sjodin, Andreas, & Mueller, Jochen (2011) Human exposure to brominated flame retardants. In Eljarrat, Ethel & Barcelo, Damia (Eds.) Brominated Flame Retardants. Springer-Verlag, pp. 203-239.
Human polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure occurs through a range of pathways including: ingestion of dust including hand-to-mouth contact; inhalation (air/particulate matter); and ingestion via food including the unique nutrition sources of human milk and placental transfer. While inhalation has been deemed a minor source of exposure, ingestion of food and dust make greater contributions to overall PBDE body burden with intake via dust reported to be much higher in infants than in adults.
PBDEs have been detected in samples of human milk, blood serum, cord blood, and adipose tissue worldwide. Concentrations have been found to be highest in populations from North America, followed by Australia, Europe, and Asia. While factors such as gender and parity may not affect concentrations, occupational exposure and age (infants and children) are associated with higher PBDE concentrations. In contrast to “traditional” persistent organic pollutants, there is an inverse relationship between PBDE body burden and age. Predicted body burden calculated using available information on intake and elimination rates of BFRs appears to underestimate measured human body burden data obtained through analysis of BFRs in blood or human milk. This may be due to unknown exposure or inaccurate elimination data. Further exposure studies should focus on younger age groups and an investigation of human PBDE half-lives.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Keywords:||brominated flame retardants, human exposure|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT (050200) > Environmental Monitoring (050206)|
|Deposited On:||03 Apr 2014 02:13|
|Last Modified:||23 Aug 2016 16:01|
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