Gas sensing of ruthenium implanted tungsten oxide thin films

Tesfamichael, T., Ahsan, M., Notarianni, M., Groß, A., Hagen, G., Moos, R., Ionescu, M., & Bell, J. (2014) Gas sensing of ruthenium implanted tungsten oxide thin films. Thin Solid Films, 558, pp. 416-422.

View at publisher


Different amounts of Ru were implanted into thermally evaporated WO3 thin films by ion implantation. The films were subsequently annealed at 600oC for 2 hours in air to remove defects generated during the ion implantation. The Ru concentrations of four samples have been quantified by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry as 0.8, 5.5, 9 and 11.5 at%. The un-implanted WO3 films were highly porous but the porosity decreased significantly after ion implantation as observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The thickness of the films also decreased with increasing Ru-ion dose, which is mainly due to densification of the porous films during ion implantation. From Raman spectroscopy two peaks at 408 and 451 cm-1 (in addition to the typical vibrational peaks of the monoclinic WO3 phase) associated with Ru were observed. Their intensity increased with increasing Ru concentration. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed a metallic state of Ru with binding energy of Ru 3d5/2 at 280.1 eV. This peak position remained almost unchanged with increasing Ru concentration. The resistances of the Ru-implanted films were found to increase in the presence of NO2 and NO with higher sensor response to NO2. The effect of Ru concentration on the sensing performance of the films was not explicitly observed due to reduced film thickness and porosity with increasing Ru concentration. However, the results indicate that the implantation of Ru into WO3 films with sufficient film porosity and film thickness can be beneficial for NO2 sensing at temperatures in the range of 250°C to 350°C.

Impact and interest:

3 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
2 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

10 since deposited on 09 Apr 2014
8 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 69947
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Nanostructured tungsten oxide, Thin films, Ru-ion implantation, Sensor response, NO2 gas sensors
DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.084
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2014 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Copyright Statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Thin Solid Films. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Thin Solid Films, [in press] DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.084
Deposited On: 09 Apr 2014 03:49
Last Modified: 02 May 2016 15:58

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page