Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Queensland, Australia

Hall, Lisa (2013) Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Queensland, Australia. In IDWeek2013, 2-6 October 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Background: International epidemic clones (ribotypes 027 and 078) of Clostridium difficile have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes in North America and Europe. In 2010, the first local transmission of an epidemic strain (027) of C. difficile was reported in the state of Victoria, Australia, but no cases of infection with this strain were reported in the state of Queensland.

In 2012, a prevalence study was undertaken in all public and selected private hospitals to examine the epidemiology of CDI and determine the prevalence of epidemic C. difficile strains in Queensland.

Methods: Enhanced surveillance was undertaken on all hospital identified CDI cases aged over 2 years between 10 April and 15 June 2012. Where available, patient samples were cultured and isolates of C. difficile ribotyped. The toxin profile of each isolate was determined by PCR.

Results: In total, 168 cases of CDI were identified during the study period. A majority (58.3%) of cases had onset of symptoms in hospital. Of the 62 patients with community onset of symptoms, most (74%) had a hospital admission in the previous 3 months. Only 4 of 168 patients had onset of symptoms within a residential care facility. Thirteen out of the 168 (7.7%) patients included in the study had severe disease (ICU admission and/or death within 30 days of onset). Overall 136/168 (81%) of cases had been prescribed antibiotics in the last month. Of concern was the emergence of a novel ribotype (244) which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and is genetically related to ribotype 027. Seven patients were infected with C. difficile ribotype 244 (8% of 83 samples ribotyped), including one patient requiring ICU admission and one patient who died. Ribotype 244 was tcdA, tcdB and CDT positive and contained a tcdC mutation at position 117.

Conclusion: Ongoing surveillance is required to determine the origin and epidemiology of C. difficile ribotype 244 infections in Australia.

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ID Code: 70425
Item Type: Conference Item (Poster)
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: clostridium difficile, hospital associated infection, infection surveillance
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (110800)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700) > Epidemiology (111706)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 Please consult the author
Deposited On: 23 Apr 2014 23:15
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2014 23:15

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