Handmade clay balls and recycled crush glass as alternative media in water filtration

Rajapakse, Jay (2011) Handmade clay balls and recycled crush glass as alternative media in water filtration. In Kocabas, Ibrahim (Ed.) World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Proceedings, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), Phuket, Thailand, pp. 1391-1396.


For many years materials such as quarried sand, anthracite, and granular activated carbon have been the principal media-products traditionally used in water and wastewater filtration plants. Pebble Matrix Filtration (PMF) is a novel non-chemical, sustainable pre-treatment method of protecting Slow Sand Filters (SSF) from high turbidity during heavy monsoon periods. PMF uses sand and pebbles as the filter media and the sustainability of this new technology might depend on availability and supply of pebbles and sand, both finite resources. In many countries there are two principal methods of obtaining pebbles and sand, namely dredging from rivers and beaches, and due to the scarcity of these resources in some countries the cost of pebbles is often 4-5 times higher than that of sand. In search for an alternative medium to pebbles after some preliminary laboratory tests conducted in Colombo-Sri Lanka, Poznan-Poland and Cambridge-UK, a 100-year-old brick factory near Sudbury, Suffolk, has produced hand-made clay pebbles satisfying the PMF quality requirements. As an alternative to sand, crushed recycled glass from a UK supplier was used and the PMF system was operated together with hand-made clay balls in the laboratory for high turbidity removal effectively. The results of laboratory experiments with alternative media are presented in this paper. There are potential opportunities for recycled crushed glass and clay ball manufacturing processes in some countries where they can be used as filter media.

Impact and interest:

3 citations in Web of Science®
Search Google Scholar™

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

232 since deposited on 05 May 2014
101 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 70981
Item Type: Conference Paper
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Clay Brick Balls, New Filter Media, Pebble Matrix Filtration (PMF), Recycled Crushed Glass, Sand, Slow Sand Filtration
ISSN: 2010-376X
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Civil Engineering & Built Environment
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Deposited On: 05 May 2014 23:18
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2014 05:58

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page