Short-term changes in axial length during simulations of typical far, intermediate and near tasks

Ghosh, Atanu, Collins, Michael J., Read, Scott A., Davis, Brett A., & Chatterjee, Payel (2013) Short-term changes in axial length during simulations of typical far, intermediate and near tasks. In 14th International Myopia Conference, American Academy of Optometry, Stanley Hall UC Berkley and Asilomar, California, United States of America.

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Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the changes in axial length with the combined effect of accommodation and angle of gaze (convergence and downward gaze) over 5 minutes in groups of myopes and emmetropes.

Methods: A total of 31 subjects (nine emmetropes, 10 low myopes, and 12 moderate to high myopes) aged from 18 to 31 years were recruited. To measure ocular biometrics in inferonasal gaze with accommodation, an optical biometer (Lenstar LS900) was inclined on a tilt and height adjustable stage, with the subject’s chinrest mounted on a rotary stage to induce various levels of convergence by rotation of the subject’s head in primary or downward gaze. Initially, the subjects performed a distance viewing task in primary gaze for 10 minutes to provide a ‘wash-out’ period for prior visual tasks, and then the subject’s axial length and ocular biometrics were measured in nine different combinations of gaze/accommodation over 5 minutes. These nine sessions for all gaze measurements (i.e. three levels of accommodation 9 three levels of convergence) were completed across 3 days of testing (one accommodation condition on each day).The nine combinations of gaze/accommodation were based on those required to view the centre, right and left edges of a distant TV at 6 m in primary gaze, an intermediate task (i.e. computer at 50 cm in 10° downward gaze) and a near task (i.e. reading A4 page at 20 cm in 20° downward gaze). Subjects were wearing a custom built three-axes head tracker throughout the experiment that monitored subjects’ relative head movements (roll, pitch and yaw) during measurements.

Results: A significant increase in axial length occurred with the combined effect of accommodation, convergence and downward gaze (repeated measures ANOVA, p < 0.001), with the greatest axial elongation during the near task in downward gaze with convergence (i.e. downward 20°/inward 33°, with 5 D accommodation) (mean change 33 ± 13 lm, after 5 minutes task) followed by the intermediate task (i.e. downward 10°/inward 25°, with 2 D accommodation) (mean change 14 ± 11 lm, after 5 minutes task).Changes in axial length for the distance task (i.e. primary gaze/9° convergence, with 0.16 D accommodation) were not statistically significant (mean change 4 ± 8 lm, after 5 minutes task, p > 0.05). Moderate to high myopes had a greater change in the axial length (mean change 40 ± 11 lm after 5 minutes of near task) than that of emmetropes (mean change 29 ± 15 lm after 5 minutes of near task) and low myopes (mean change 29 ± 16 lm after 5 minutes of near task) associated with time (p = 0.02) and accommodation by time (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: The combination of accommodation, convergence and downward angle has a significant short term effect on axial length over time. The near task in downward gaze with convergence caused a greater change in axial length than the intermediate and distant visual tasks. The greater axial elongation measured in the infero-nasal direction with accommodation is most likely associated with a combination of biomechanical factors such as, extraocular muscle forces and ciliary muscle contraction.

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ID Code: 72092
Item Type: Conference Paper
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: axial length, accommodation, downward gaze, convergence, emmotrope, myope
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300) > Optical Technology (111302)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300) > Vision Science (111303)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Optometry & Vision Science
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2013 please consult author(s)
Deposited On: 25 May 2014 22:53
Last Modified: 10 Jul 2014 02:36

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