Characterisation of red mud and seawater neutralised red mud using vibrational spectroscopic techniques

Palmer, Sara J., Frost, Ray L., & Reddy, B. Jagannadha (2008) Characterisation of red mud and seawater neutralised red mud using vibrational spectroscopic techniques. In 8th International Alumina Quality Workshop, 7-12 September 2008, Darwin, NT.


Bauxite refinery residues are derived from the Bayer process by the digestion of crushed bauxite in concentrated caustic at elevated temperatures. Chemically, it comprises, in varying amounts (depending upon the composition of the starting bauxite), oxides of iron and titanium, residual alumina, sodalite, silica, and minor quantities of other metal oxides. Bauxite residues are being neutralised by seawater in recent years to reduce the alkalinity in bauxite residue, through the precipitation of hydrotalcite-like compounds and some other Mg, Ca, and Al hydroxide and carbonate minerals.

A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrational spectroscopy techniques, including mid-infrared (IR), Raman, near-infrared (NIR), and UV-Visible, have been used to characterise bauxite residue and seawater neutralised bauxite residue. Both the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) ions within bauxite residue can be identified by their characteristic NIR bands, where ferrous ions produce a strong absorption band at around 9000 cm-1, while ferric ions produce two strong bands at 25000 and 14300 cm-1. The presence of adsorbed carbonate and hydroxide anions can be identified at around 5200 and 7000 cm-1, respectively, attributed to the 2nd overtone of the 1st fundamental overtones observed in the mid-IR spectra. The complex bands in the Raman and mid-IR spectra around 3500 cm-1 are assigned to the OH stretching vibrations of the various oxides present in bauxite residue, and water. The combination of carbonate and hydroxyl units and their fundamental overtones give rise to many of the features of the NIR spectra.

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ID Code: 72154
Item Type: Conference Paper
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: red mud, seawater neutralised, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > CHEMICAL SCIENCE (030000) > ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (030100)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > CHEMICAL SCIENCE (030000) > INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (030200)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2008 [please consult the author]
Deposited On: 27 May 2014 23:12
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2014 19:49

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