Poettering, Bertram & Stebila, Douglas (2014) Double-authentication-preventing signatures. In Kutyłowski, Mirosław & Vaidya, Jaideep (Eds.) Computer Security - ESORICS 2014: 19th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Proceedings, Part I [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 8713], Springer, Wroclaw, Poland, pp. 436-453.
Digital signatures are often used by trusted authorities to make unique bindings between a subject and a digital object; for example, certificate authorities certify a public key belongs to a domain name, and time-stamping authorities certify that a certain piece of information existed at a certain time. Traditional digital signature schemes however impose no uniqueness conditions, so a trusted authority could make multiple certifications for the same subject but different objects, be it intentionally, by accident, or following a (legal or illegal) coercion. We propose the notion of a double-authentication-preventing signature, in which a value to be signed is split into two parts: a subject and a message. If a signer ever signs two different messages for the same subject, enough information is revealed to allow anyone to compute valid signatures on behalf of the signer. This double-signature forgeability property discourages signers from misbehaving---a form of self-enforcement---and would give binding authorities like CAs some cryptographic arguments to resist legal coercion. We give a generic construction using a new type of trapdoor functions with extractability properties, which we show can be instantiated using the group of sign-agnostic quadratic residues modulo a Blum integer.
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