Characteristics of ultrafine particle sources and deposition rates in primary school classrooms
Laiman, Rusdin, He, Congrong, Mazaheri, Mandana, Clifford, Sam, Salimi, Farhad, Crilley, Leigh R., Mokhtar, Megat, & Morawska, Lidia (2014) Characteristics of ultrafine particle sources and deposition rates in primary school classrooms. Atmospheric Environment, 94, pp. 28-35.
The aim of this work was to investigate changes in particle number concentration (PNC) within naturally ventilated primary school classrooms arising from local sources either within or adjacent to the classrooms. We quantify the rate at which ultrafine particles were emitted either from printing, grilling, heating or cleaning activities and the rate at which the particles were removed by both deposition and air exchange processes. At each of 25 schools in Brisbane, Australia, two weeks of measurements of PNC and CO2 were taken both outdoors and in the two classrooms. Bayesian regression modelling was employed in order to estimate the relevant rates and analyse the relationship between air exchange rate (AER), particle infiltration and the deposition rates of particle generated from indoor activities in the classrooms. During schooling hours, grilling events at the school tuckshop as well as heating and printing in the classrooms led to indoor PNCs being elevated by a factor of more than four, with emission rates of (2.51 ± 0.25) x 1011 p min-1, (8.99 ± 6.70) x 1011 p min-1 and (5.17 ± 2.00) x 1011 p min-1, respectively. During non-school hours, cleaning events elevated indoor PNC by a factor of above five, with an average emission rate of (2.09 ± 6.30) x 1011 p min-1. Particles were removed by both air exchange and deposition; chiefly by ventilation when AER > 0.7 h-1 and by deposition when AER < 0.7 h-1.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||Air exchange rate, indoor sources, ultrafine particles, emission rate, deposition rate, schools|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES (040100) > Atmospheric Aerosols (040101)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT (050200) > Environmental Monitoring (050206)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (090700) > Environmental Engineering not elsewhere classified (090799)
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Copyright Statement:||NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Atmospheric Environment. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Atmospheric Environment, [Volume 94, (September 2014)] DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.013|
|Deposited On:||29 Jun 2014 23:53|
|Last Modified:||06 Sep 2016 11:29|
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