An attack-localizing watermarking scheme for natural language documents
Gupta, Gaurav, Pieprzyk, Josef, & Wang, Huaxiong (2006) An attack-localizing watermarking scheme for natural language documents. In Lin, Ferng-Ching, Lee, Der-Tsai, & Lin, Bao-Shuh (Eds.) Proceedings ASIACCS '06 Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, ACM, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 157-165.
We present a text watermarking scheme that embeds a bitstream watermark Wi in a text document P preserving the meaning, context, and flow of the document. The document is viewed as a set of paragraphs, each paragraph being a set of sentences. The sequence of paragraphs and sentences used to embed watermark bits is permuted using a secret key. Then, English language sentence transformations are used to modify sentence lengths, thus embedding watermarking bits in the Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the sentences’ cardinalities. The embedding and extracting algorithms are public, while the secrecy and security of the watermark depends on a secret key K. The probability of False Positives is extremely small, hence avoiding incidental occurrences of our watermark in random text documents. Majority voting provides security against text addition, deletion, and swapping attacks, further reducing the probability of False Positives. The scheme is secure against the general attacks on text watermarks such as reproduction (photocopying, FAX), reformatting, synonym substitution, text addition, text deletion, text swapping, paragraph shuffling and collusion attacks.
Impact and interest:
Citation counts are sourced monthly from and citation databases.
These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.
Citations counts from theindexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.
|Item Type:||Conference Paper|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty|
|Deposited On:||03 Jul 2014 03:30|
|Last Modified:||04 Jul 2014 00:37|
Repository Staff Only: item control page