Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells in retinal disease
Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) are a class of photoreceptors with established roles in non-image forming processes. Their contributions to image forming vision may include the estimation of brightness. Animal models have been central for understanding the physiological mechanisms of ipRGC function and there is evidence of conservation of function across species. ipRGCs can be divided into 5 ganglion cell subtypes that show morphological and functional diversity. Research in humans has established that ipRGCs signal environmental irradiance to entrain the central body clock to the solar day for regulating circadian processes and sleep. In addition, ipRGCs mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR), making the PLR a readily accessible behavioural marker of ipRGC activity. Less is known about ipRGC function in retinal and optic nerve disease, with emerging research providing insight into their function in diabetes, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma and hereditary optic neuropathy. We briefly review the anatomical distributions, projections and basic physiological mechanisms of ipRGCs, their proposed and known functions in animals and humans with and without eye disease. We introduce a paradigm for differentiating inner and outer retinal inputs to the pupillary control pathway in retinal disease and apply this paradigm to patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In these cases of patients with AMD, we provide the initial evidence that ipRGC function is altered, and that the dysfunction is more pronounced in advanced disease. Our perspective is that with refined pupillometry paradigms, the pupil light reflex can be extended to AMD assessment as a tool for the measurement of inner and outer retinal dysfunction.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, pupil light reflex, age-related macular degeneration, ipRGCs, PIPR|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300) > Vision Science (111303)|
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Optometry & Vision Science
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2014 American Academy of Optometry|
|Deposited On:||11 Aug 2014 23:13|
|Last Modified:||02 Sep 2015 01:34|
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