On-road rapid identification of high-polluting transport buses
Jayaratne, Rohan, Morawska, Lidia, Ristovski, Zoran, & He, Congrong (2007) On-road rapid identification of high-polluting transport buses. In 14th IUAPPA World Congress : Clean Air Partnerships: Coming Together for Clean Air : Brisbane 2007 : Conference Proceedings, Incorporating the 18th CASANZ Conference Hosted by the Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand, Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles vary widely and depend on factors such as engine operating conditions, fuel, age, mileage and service history. A method has been devised to rapidly identify high-polluting vehicles as they travel on the road. The method is able to monitor emissions from a large number of vehicles in a short time and avoids the need to conduct expensive and time consuming tests on chassis dynamometers.
A sample of the exhaust plume is captured as each vehicle passes a roadside monitoring station and the pollutant emission factors are calculated from the measured concentrations using carbon dioxide as a tracer. Although, similar methods have been used to monitor soot and gaseous mass emissions, to-date it has not been used to monitor particle number emissions from a large fleet of vehicles. This is particularly important as epidemiological studies have shown that particle number concentration is an important parameter in determining adverse health effects.
The method was applied to measurements of particle number emissions from individual buses in the Brisbane City Council diesel fleet operating on the South-East Busway. Results indicate that the particle number emission factors are gamma- distributed, with a high proportion of the emissions being emitted by a small percentage of the buses. Although most of the high-emitters are the oldest buses in the fleet, there are clear exceptions, with some newer buses emitting as much. We attribute this to their recent service history, particularly pertaining to improper tuning of the engines. We recommend that a targeted correction program would be a highly effective measure in mitigating urban environmental pollution.
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