Biodiesel production from non-edible beauty leaf (Calophyllum Inophyllum) oil : process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

Jahirul, Mohammed I., Koh, Wenyong, Brown, Richard J., Senadeera, Wijitha, O'Hara, Ian, & Moghaddam, Lalehvash (2014) Biodiesel production from non-edible beauty leaf (Calophyllum Inophyllum) oil : process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Energies, 7(8), pp. 5317-5331.

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In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum) is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA) content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides) were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w) sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.

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ID Code: 75332
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: biodiesel, beauty leaf, transesterification, response surface methodology (RSM)
DOI: 10.3390/en7085317
ISSN: 1996-1073
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > CHEMICAL SCIENCE (030000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Research Centres > Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
Copyright Statement: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
Deposited On: 20 Aug 2014 22:49
Last Modified: 21 Aug 2014 21:14

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