Food and beverage intake in Australian children aged 12-16 months participating in the NOURISH and SAIDI studies

Byrne, Rebecca, Magarey, Anthea, & Daniels, Lynne A. (2014) Food and beverage intake in Australian children aged 12-16 months participating in the NOURISH and SAIDI studies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 38(4), pp. 326-331.

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To describe the quantity and diversity of food and beverage intake in Australian children aged 12–16 months and to determine if the amount and type of milk intake is associated with dietary diversity.


Mothers participating in the NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI) studies completed a single 24-hour recall of their child's food intake, when children (n=551) were aged 12–16 months. The relationship between dietary diversity and intake of cow's milk, formula or breastmilk was examined using one-way ANOVA.


Dairy and cereal were the most commonly consumed food groups and the greatest contributors to daily energy intake. Most children ate fruit (87%) and vegetables (77%) on the day of the 24-hour recall while 91% ate discretionary items. Half the sample ate less than 30 g of meat/alternatives. A quarter of the children were breastfeeding while formula was consumed by 32% of the sample, providing 29% of daily energy intake. Lower dietary diversity was associated with increased formula intake.


The quality of dietary intake in this group of young children is highly variable. Most toddlers were consuming a diverse diet, though almost all ate discretionary items. The amount and type of meat/alternatives consumed was poor.


Health professionals should advise parents to offer iron-rich foods, while limiting discretionary choices and use of formula at an age critical in the development of long-term food preferences.

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12 citations in Scopus
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10 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 75911
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Special Issue: The 2014 Australian Budget and Public Health
Keywords: toddler, intake, diversity, breastfeeding, formula
DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12249
ISSN: 1326-0200
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (111100)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2014 Public Health Association of Australia
Deposited On: 04 Sep 2014 01:34
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2014 22:00

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