Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the upper limb functional index

Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio & Gabel, Philip (2013) Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the upper limb functional index. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, pp. 1-8.

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The Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) is an internationally widely used outcome measure with robust, valid psychometric properties. The purpose of study is to develop and validate a ULFI Spanish-version (ULFI-Sp).


A two stage observational study was conducted. The ULFI was cross-culturally adapted to Spanish through double forward and backward translations, the psychometric properties were then validated. Participants (n = 126) with various upper limb conditions of >12 weeks duration completed the ULFI-Sp, QuickDASH and the Euroqol Health Questionnaire 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3 L). The full sample determined internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, construct validity and factor structure; a subgroup (n = 35) determined reliability at seven days.


The ULFI-Sp demonstrated high internal consistency (α = 0.94) and reliability (r = 0.93). Factor structure was one-dimensional and supported construct validity. Criterion validity with the EQ-5D-3 L was fair and inversely correlated (r = −0.59). The QuickDASH data was unavailable for analysis due to excessive missing responses.


The ULFI-Sp is a valid upper limb outcome measure with similar psychometric properties to the English language version.

Impact and interest:

15 citations in Scopus
11 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 76989
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-11-126
ISSN: 1477-7525
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Deposited On: 07 Oct 2014 07:01
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2017 19:01

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