Near infrared spectroscopy for rapid determination of Mankin score components : a potential tool for quantitative characterization of articular cartilage at surgery

Afara, Isaac Oluwaseun, Prasadam, Indira, Moody, Hayley, Crawford, Ross W., Xiao, Yin, & Oloyede, Adekunle (2014) Near infrared spectroscopy for rapid determination of Mankin score components : a potential tool for quantitative characterization of articular cartilage at surgery. Arthroscopy : The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, 30(9), pp. 1146-1155.

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The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for characterizing the health and degenerative state of articular cartilage based on the components of the Mankin score.


Three models of osteoarthritic degeneration induced in laboratory rats by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection, meniscectomy (MSX), and intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate (1 mg) (MIA) were used in this study. Degeneration was induced in the right knee joint; each model group consisted of 12 rats (N = 36). After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized and knee joints were collected. A custom-made diffuse reflectance NIR probe of 5-mm diameter was placed on the tibial and femoral surfaces, and spectral data were acquired from each specimen in the wave number range of 4,000 to 12,500 cm(-1). After spectral data acquisition, the specimens were fixed and safranin O staining (SOS) was performed to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system. Using multivariate statistical analysis, with spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection technique, the spectral data were then correlated to the structural integrity (SI), cellularity (CEL), and matrix staining (SOS) components of the Mankin score for all the samples tested.


ACL models showed mild cartilage degeneration, MSX models had moderate degeneration, and MIA models showed severe cartilage degenerative changes both morphologically and histologically. Our results reveal significant linear correlations between the NIR absorption spectra and SI (R(2) = 94.78%), CEL (R(2) = 88.03%), and SOS (R(2) = 96.39%) parameters of all samples in the models. In addition, clustering of the samples according to their level of degeneration, with respect to the Mankin components, was also observed.


NIR spectroscopic probing of articular cartilage can potentially provide critical information about the health of articular cartilage matrix in early and advanced stages of osteoarthritis (OA).


This rapid nondestructive method can facilitate clinical appraisal of articular cartilage integrity during arthroscopic surgery.

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9 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 78668
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2014.04.097
ISSN: 0749-8063
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING (090300)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)
Divisions: Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2014 Elsevier
Copyright Statement: This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Arthroscopy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Arthroscopy, [VOL 30, ISSUE 9, (2014)] DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2014.04.097
Deposited On: 16 Nov 2014 23:07
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2014 01:15

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