The Craving Experience Questionnaire : a brief, theory-based measure of consummatory desire and craving

May, Jon, Andrade, Jackie, Kavanagh, David J., Feeney, Gerald F. X., Gullo, Mathew J., Statham, Dixie J., Skorka-Brown, Jessica, Connolly, Jennifer M., Cassimatis, Mandy, Young, Ross McD., & Connor, Jason P. (2014) The Craving Experience Questionnaire : a brief, theory-based measure of consummatory desire and craving. Addiction, 109(5), pp. 728-735.

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Background and Aims

Research into craving is hampered by lack of theoretical specification and a plethora of substance-specific measures. This study aimed to develop a generic measure of craving based on elaborated intrusion (EI) theory. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) examined whether a generic measure replicated the three-factor structure of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) scale over different consummatory targets and time-frames.


Twelve studies were pooled for CFA. Targets included alcohol, cigarettes, chocolate and food. Focal periods varied from the present moment to the previous week. Separate analyses were conducted for strength and frequency forms.


Nine studies included university students, with single studies drawn from an internet survey, a community sample of smokers and alcohol-dependent out-patients.


A heterogeneous sample of 1230 participants.


Adaptations of the ACE questionnaire.


Both craving strength [comparative fit indices (CFI = 0.974; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.035–0.044] and frequency (CFI = 0.971, RMSEA = 0.049, 95% CI = 0.044–0.055) gave an acceptable three-factor solution across desired targets that mapped onto the structure of the original ACE (intensity, imagery, intrusiveness), after removing an item, re-allocating another and taking intercorrelated error terms into account. Similar structures were obtained across time-frames and targets. Preliminary validity data on the resulting 10-item Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) for cigarettes and alcohol were strong.


The Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) is a brief, conceptually grounded and psychometrically sound measure of desires. It demonstrates a consistent factor structure across a range of consummatory targets in both laboratory and clinical contexts.

Impact and interest:

12 citations in Scopus
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10 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 79251
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: alcohol, assessment, chocolate, craving, food, measure, tobacco
DOI: 10.1111/add.12472
ISSN: 0965-2140
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000) > PSYCHOLOGY (170100) > Health Clinical and Counselling Psychology (170106)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Psychology & Counselling
Deposited On: 08 Dec 2014 22:46
Last Modified: 09 Dec 2014 21:45

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