Resolving the conflicts of sustainable world heritage landscapes in cities : fully open or limited access for visitors?
Zhang, Xiaoling, Zhou, Ling, Wu, Yuzhe, Skitmore, Martin, & Deng, Zhiping (2015) Resolving the conflicts of sustainable world heritage landscapes in cities : fully open or limited access for visitors? Habitat International, 46, pp. 91-100.
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World Heritage Landscapes (WHLs) are receiving increased attention from researchers, urban planners, managers, and policy makers and many heritage values and resources are becoming irreversibly lost. This phenomenon is especially prominent for WHLs located in cities, where greater development opportunities are involved. Decision making for sustainable urban landscape planning, conservation and management of WHLs often takes place from an economic perspective, especially in developing countries. This, together with the uncertain source of funding to cover WHL operating and maintenance costs, has resulted in many urban managers seeking private sector funding either in the form of visitor access fees or leasing part of the site for high-rental facilities such as five star hotels, clubs and expensive restaurants. For the former, this can result in low-income urban citizens being unable to afford the access fees and hence contradicting the principle of equal access for all; while, for the latter, the principle of open access for all is equally violated. To resolve this conflict, a game model is developed to determine how urban managers should allocate WHL spaces to maximize the combination of economic, social and ecological benefits and cultural values. A case study is provided of the Hangzhou's West Lake Scenic Area, a WHL located at the centre of Hangzhou city, in which several high-rental facilities have recently been closed down by the local authorities due to charges of elitism and misuse of public funds by government officials. The result shows that the best solution is to lease a small space with high rents and leave the remainder of the site to the public. This solution is likely to be applicable only in cities with a strong economy.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||World heritage landscapes, City, Sustainable development, Conflicts, Game theory|
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Civil Engineering & Built Environment
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Copyright Statement:||NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Habitat International. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Habitat International, Volume 46, April 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.11.004|
|Deposited On:||11 Dec 2014 22:21|
|Last Modified:||10 Dec 2015 20:03|
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