Beyond the Producer/Consumer Divide : Key Principles of Produsage and Opportunities for Innovation
Bruns, Axel (2014) Beyond the Producer/Consumer Divide : Key Principles of Produsage and Opportunities for Innovation. In Peters, Michael A., Besley, Tina, & Araya, Daniel (Eds.) The new development paradigm : education, knowledge economy and digital futures. Peter Lang, New York, pp. 51-65.
Though popular, concepts such as Toffler's 'prosumer' (1970; 1980; 1990) are inherently limited in their ability to accurately describe the makeup and dynamics of current co-creative environments, from fundamentally non-profit initiatives like the Wikipedia to user-industry partnerships that engage in crowdsourcing and the development of collective intelligence. Instead, the success or failure of such projects can be understood best if the traditional producer/consumer divide is dissolved, allowing for the emergence of the produser (Bruns, 2008).
A close investigation of leading spaces for produsage makes it possible to extract the key principles which underpin and guide such content co-creation, and to identify how innovative pro-am partnerships between commercial entities and user communities might be structured in order to maximise the benefits that both sides will be able to draw from such collaboration. This chapter will outline these principles, and point to successes and failures in applying them to pro- am initiatives.
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