Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air pollution in South Africa in 2000

Norman, Rosana, Cairncross, Eugene, Witi, Jongikhaya, & Bradshaw, Debbie (2007) Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air pollution in South Africa in 2000. South African Medical Journal, 97(8), pp. 782-790.

View at publisher (open access)

Abstract

Objectives

To quantify the mortality burden attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in South Africa in 2000.

Design

The study followed comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology developed by the World Heath Organization (WHO). In most urban areas, annual mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters less than 10 μum (PM10) from monitoring network data and PM with diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) derived using a ratio method were weighted according to population size. PM10 and PM2.5 data from air-quality assessment studies in areas not covered by the network were also included. Population-attributable fractions calculated using risk coefficients presented in the WHO study were weighted by the proportion of the total population (33%) in urban environments, and applied to revised estimates of deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) for South Africa in 2000.

Setting

South Africa.

Subjects

Children under 5 years and adults 30 years and older.

Outcome measures

Mortality and YLLs from lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease in adults (30 years and older), and from acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children aged 0 - 4 years.

Results

Outdoor air pollution in urban areas in South Africa was estimated to cause 3.7% of the national mortality from cardiopulmonary disease and 5.1% of mortality attributable to cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung in adults aged 30 years and older, and 1.1% of mortality from ARIs in children under 5 years of age. This amounts to 4 637 or 0.9% (95% uncertainty interval 0.3 - 1.5%) of all deaths and about 42 000 YLLs, or 0.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.1 - 0.7%) of all YLLs in persons in South Africa in 2000.

Conclusion

Urban air pollution has under-recognised public health impacts in South Africa. Fossil fuel combustion emissions and traffic-related air pollution remain key targets for public health in South Africa.

Impact and interest:

16 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
13 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

52 since deposited on 27 Jan 2015
20 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 80245
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Research with the South African Comparative Risk Assessment
Collaborating Group
Keywords: South Africa, Air pollution, attributable burden, Burden of disease
ISSN: 2078-5135
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700) > Epidemiology (111706)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2007 Health & Medical Publishing Group
Deposited On: 27 Jan 2015 01:43
Last Modified: 09 Feb 2015 01:57

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page