A micro-level investigation of the solid displacement method for porosity determination of dried food

Joardder, Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Brown, Richard J., Kumar, Chandan, & Karim, Azharul (2015) A micro-level investigation of the solid displacement method for porosity determination of dried food. Journal of Food Engineering, 166, pp. 156-164.

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Porosity is one of the key parameters of the macroscopic structure of porous media, generally defined as the ratio of the free spaces occupied (by the volume of air) within the material to the total volume of the material. Porosity is determined by measuring skeletal volume and the envelope volume. Solid displacement method is one of the inexpensive and easy methods to determine the envelope volume of a sample with an irregular shape. In this method, generally glass beads are used as a solid due to their uniform size, compactness and fluidity properties. The smaller size of the glass beads means that they enter into the open pores which have a larger diameter than the glass beads. Although extensive research has been carried out on porosity determination using displacement method, no study exists which adequately reports micro-level observation of the sample during measurement. This study set out with the aim of assessing the accuracy of solid displacement method of bulk density measurement of dried foods by micro-level observation. Solid displacement method of porosity determination was conducted using a cylindrical vial (cylindrical plastic container) and 57 µm glass beads in order to measure the bulk density of apple slices at different moisture contents. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), a profilometer and ImageJ software were used to investigate the penetration of glass beads into the surface pores during the determination of the porosity of dried food. A helium pycnometer was used to measure the particle density of the sample. Results show that a significant number of pores were large enough to allow the glass beads to enter into the pores, thereby causing some erroneous results. It was also found that coating the dried sample with appropriate coating material prior to measurement can resolve this problem.

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ID Code: 81781
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: porosity, solid displacement method, microsturcture
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.05.034
ISSN: 0260-8774
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Creative Industries Faculty
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 Elsevier
Deposited On: 12 Feb 2015 23:11
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2016 07:33

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