Exploration of the fundamental equilibrium behaviour of calcium exchange with weak acid cation resins

Millar, Graeme J., Papworth, Shannon, & Couperthwaite, Sara J. (2014) Exploration of the fundamental equilibrium behaviour of calcium exchange with weak acid cation resins. Desalination, 351, pp. 27-36.


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This study evaluated the complexity of calcium ion exchange with sodium exchanged weak acid cation resin (DOW MAC-3). Exchange equilibria recorded for a range of different solution normalities revealed profiles which were represented by conventional “L” or “H” type isotherms at low values of equilibrium concentration (Ce) of calcium ions, plus a superimposed region of increasing calcium uptake was observed at high Ce values. The loading of calcium ions was determined to be ca. 53.5 to 58.7 g/kg of resin when modelling only the sorption curve created at low Ce values,which exhibited a well-defined plateau. The calculated calcium ion loading capacity for DOWMAC-3 resin appeared to correlate with the manufacturer's recommendation. The phenomenon of super equivalent ion exchange (SEIX) was observed when the “driving force” for the exchange process was increased in excess of 2.25 mmol calcium ions per gram of resin in the starting solution. This latter event was explained in terms of displacement of sodium ions from sodium hydroxide solution which remained in the resin bead following the initial conversion of the as supplied “H+” exchanged resin sites to the “Na+” version required for softening studies. Evidence for hydrolysis of a small fraction of the sites on the sodium exchanged resin surface was noted. The importance of carefully choosing experimental parameters was discussed especially in relation to application of the Langmuir–Vageler expression. This latter model which compared the ratio of the initial calcium ion concentration in solution to resin mass, versus final equilibrium loading of the calcium ions on the resin; was discovered to be an excellent means of identifying the progress of the calcium–sodium ion exchange process. Moreover, the Langmuir–Vageler model facilitated standardization of various calcium–sodium ion exchange experiments which allowed systematic experimental design.

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ID Code: 81968
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Calcium, Ion Exchange, Langmuir Vageler, Sodium, Super equivalent
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2014.07.022
ISSN: 0011-9164
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Copyright Statement: NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Desalination. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Desalination, Volume 351, (15 October 2014), DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2014.07.022
Deposited On: 22 Feb 2015 23:43
Last Modified: 16 Oct 2016 14:55

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