Clinical use of diodes and micro-chambers to obtain accurate small field output factor measurements

Kairn, T., Charles, P.H., Cranmer-Sargison, G., Crowe, S.B., Langton, C.M., Thwaites, D.I., & Trapp, J.V. (2015) Clinical use of diodes and micro-chambers to obtain accurate small field output factor measurements. Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 38(2), pp. 357-367.

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There have been substantial advances in small field dosimetry techniques and technologies, over the last decade, which have dramatically improved the achievable accuracy of small field dose measurements. This educational note aims to help radiation oncology medical physicists to apply some of these advances in clinical practice. The evaluation of a set of small field output factors (total scatter factors) is used to exemplify a detailed measurement and simulation procedure and as a basis for discussing the possible effects of simplifying that procedure. Field output factors were measured with an unshielded diode and a micro-ionisation chamber, at the centre of a set of square fields defined by a micro-multileaf collimator. Nominal field sizes investigated ranged from 6×6 to 98×98 mm2. Diode measurements in fields smaller than 30 mm across were corrected using response factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full diode geometry and daisy-chained to match micro-chamber measurements at intermediate field sizes. Diode measurements in fields smaller than 15 mm across were repeated twelve times over three separate measurement sessions, to evaluate the to evaluate the reproducibility of the radiation field size and its correspondence with the nominal field size. The five readings that contributed to each measurement on each day varied by up to 0.26%, for the “very small” fields smaller than 15 mm, and 0.18% for the fields larger than 15 mm. The diode response factors calculated for the unshielded diode agreed with previously published results, within 1.6%. The measured dimensions of the very small fields differed by up to 0.3 mm, across the different measurement sessions, contributing an uncertainty of up to 1.2% to the very small field output factors. The overall uncertainties in the field output factors were 1.8% for the very small fields and 1.1% for the fields larger than 15 mm across. Recommended steps for acquiring small field output factor measurements for use in radiotherapy treatment planning system beam configuration data are provided.

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ID Code: 82115
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: diode, radiotherapy, output factor, small field, ionization chamber
DOI: 10.1007/s13246-015-0334-9
ISSN: 1879-5447
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PHYSICAL SCIENCES (020000) > OTHER PHYSICAL SCIENCES (029900) > Medical Physics (029903)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
Deposited On: 02 Mar 2015 22:27
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2016 17:50

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