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Viral and chemical tracer movement through contrasting soils

McLeod, Malcolm, Aislabie, Jacqueline, Smith, James J., Fraser, Rhonda, Roberts, Alexandra, & Taylor, Matthew (2001) Viral and chemical tracer movement through contrasting soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, pp. 2134-2140.

Abstract

Received for publication October 3, 2000. Land treatment of animal or human waste can result in chemical and microbial contamination of shallow ground water and/or waterways. We investigated the fate of a host-specific Salmonella bacteriophage and a nonreactive chemical (Br-) tracer when applied to large intact lysimeter soil cores (500 mm diam. by 700 mm high). The soils included a poorly drained Gley Soil and well-drained Pumice, Allophanic, and Recent Soils. A depth of 30 mm of water containing the bacteriophage and Br- was applied to the soil at a rate of 5 mm h-1 followed by up to about 1.8 pore volumes of simulated rainfall. Resulting leachates, collected continuously over at least one pore volume were analyzed for the bacteriophage and bromide (Br-) tracers. Bromide moved uniformly through the Pumice and Allophanic Soils with peak concentrations at about 1 pore volume, while the bacteriophage was detected only at trace levels or not at all. In contrast, both Br- and bacteriophage tracers moved rapidly through Gley and Recent Soils, appearing early in the leachate and then tailing off. Such flow patterns in the Gley and Recent Soils are indicative of bypass flow. Coarse soil structure in the Gley Soil, and finger-flow due to water repellency in the sandy Recent Soil are considered responsible for the observed bypass flow in these two soils. Allophanic and Pumice Soils have finer, more porous soil structure leading to a predominance of matrix flow over bypass flow. This study suggests vertical movement of viruses varies significantly with soil type.

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ID Code: 8213
Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: For more information, please refer to the journal’s website (see hypertext link) or contact the author. Author contact details: jj.smith@qut.edu.au
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Virus, groundwater, movement, soils, bacteriophage, indicator
ISSN: 0047-2425
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES (070000) > ANIMAL PRODUCTION (070200) > Animal Protection (Pests and Pathogens) (070205)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > SOIL SCIENCES (050300) > Land Capability and Soil Degradation (050302)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENGINEERING (090000) > ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (090700) > Environmental Engineering Modelling (090702)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > MICROBIOLOGY (060500) > Bacteriology (060501)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > MICROBIOLOGY (060500) > Virology (060506)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCE (040600) > Hydrogeology (040603)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT (050200) > Environmental Management (050205)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT (050200) > Natural Resource Management (050209)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > TECHNOLOGY (100000) > INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (100300) > Bioprocessing Bioproduction and Bioproducts (100302)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > SOIL SCIENCES (050300) > Soil Biology (050303)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES (070000) > OTHER AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES (079900) > Agricultural Hydrology (Drainage Flooding Irrigation Quality etc) (079901)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES (070000) > VETERINARY SCIENCES (070700) > Veterinary Virology (070712)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (060000) > MICROBIOLOGY (060500) > Microbial Ecology (060504)
Divisions: Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology
Past > Institutes > Institute for Sustainable Resources
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2001 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America
Deposited On: 11 Jul 2007
Last Modified: 15 Jan 2009 17:36

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